IOCAS-IR  > 海洋地质与环境重点实验室
黄河三角洲地区建筑物地面沉降量计算方法研究
徐丽雯
学位类型硕士
导师黄海军
2017
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业地质工程
关键词黄河三角洲 建筑物 地面沉降 双曲线切线模量法
摘要
地面沉降是一种地面高程累进损失的地质灾害现象,地面沉降在短时间内难以被发现,被形象的称为“沉默的土地危机”,地面沉降具有不可逆性,一旦形成便难以恢复,地面沉降灾害将导致海水倒灌、高程点失效、道路裂缝塌陷等,严重影响生态环境,甚至威胁人类的生存。
导致地面沉降的因素可以分为自然和人为因素,自然因素主要包括地壳运动、沉积物固结压实、海平面上升等,在一般情况下自然因素(除地震、新废弃河道沉积物固结)导致的地面沉降周期长、幅度小,在初期并未引起关注;随着人类活动的频繁,加大面积开采地下流体(地下水、油、气)等,地面沉降现象已经逐年加剧。
工程建设导致地面沉降最早在长江三角洲(上海)引起关注,而黄河三角洲普遍存在一定程度地面沉降灾害,工程建设导致的地面沉降现象逐年凸显。本文针对黄河三角洲地区三个工程实例(胜利油田中心医院综合病房楼、新邦名郡、长安大厦)分别运用分层总和法、弦线模量法、修正弦线模量法、双曲线切线模量法和双曲线割线模量法进行建筑物导致的地面沉降量计算,结果表明双曲线切线模量法与实测数据最为接近,分别为3.46mm、4.50mm、10.85mm;进一步利用该方法对胜利油田中心医院、新邦名郡的沉降量时间序列分别进行计算,所得曲线与实测曲线一致性较高,认为双曲线切线模量法较适用于黄河三角洲建筑物沉降量计算。此外,选取东营区其他高层建筑物沉降监测结果对本文计算、监测结果准确性进行评价。
为了进一步证实,双曲线切线模量法适用于黄河三角洲地区建筑物导致地面沉降量计算,利用该方法计算东营建筑密集区建筑物导致的地面沉降量。收集黄河三角洲地区(东营)2007-2010年遥感影像,对影像进行预处理,通过计算机自动分类与目视解译相结合的方法,对研究区2007-2010年建筑物变化进行解译,选取2010年新增建筑密集区,通过影像解译及资料收集,得到新增建筑密集区建筑面积、占地面积、平均层数等参数,利用评估后的方法——双曲线切线模量法计算新增建筑密集区的沉降量,并对压缩层厚度的选取进行分析,认为大面积建筑物压缩层厚度使用应力控制法更合适,计算结果表明,东营区2007-2010年建筑物导致地面沉降量为7.52mm/a,所得结果与现有资料吻合较好。
本文计算过程所需参数较少,遥感影像易于获得,节省实地勘测的人力物力,为区域建筑物建设引起地面沉降的计算提供方法。
 
其他摘要 Land subsidence is a geo-hazard of progressive loss of ground elevation which cannot be detected in a short time, so it is also called the “silent land crisis”. Land subsidence is irreversible, and once formed, it is difficult to be recovered. Land subsidence disasters will cause seawater intrusion, elevation point failure and road cracks subsidence, serious affecting ecological environment, and even threaten the survival of mankind.
The factors that lead to land subsidence can be divided into natural factors and human factors. Natural factors mainly include crustal movement, sediment consolidation compaction, sea level rise, and so on. Under normal circumstances, land subsidence caused by natural factors (except the earthquake, abandoned channel sediment consolidation) showed characteristics of long cycle and small amplitude. Therefore, at an early stage, it hasn’t attracted people’s attention. But with the frequent exploitation of a larger area of underground fluid (such as groundwater, oil and gas), land subsidence has been increasing year by year.
The earliest attention of land subsidence caused by engineering construction was drew in the Yangtze River Delta (Shanghai), and land subsidence exists in the Yellow River Delta as well. The phenomenon of land subsidence caused by engineering construction has been highlighted year by year. This paper aimed at 3 engineering examples in the Yellow River Delta (Comprehensive ward building of Shengli Oilfield Center Hospital, Xinbang Mingjun, Chang’an Tower), using layer-wise summation method, chord-modulus method, correctional chord-modulus method, undisturbed soil tangent modulus method and undisturbed soil secant modulus method, respectively, and calculating the land subsidence caused by the buildings. The results showed that the data calculated by the undisturbed soil tangent modulus method were the closest to the measured data (3.46mm, 4.50mm and 10.85mm). Undisturbed soil tangent modulus method was then used to calculate the time series of settlement of Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital and Xinbang Mingjun respectively. The obtained curve is consistent with the measured curve. So it is proved that the undisturbed soil tangent modulus method is more suitable for the calculation of the settlement of the Yellow River Delta. In addition, we used the settlement monitoring results of other high-rise buildings in the Dongying district to evaluate the accuracy of our calculation and monitoring results.
In order to validate that the undisturbed soil tangent modulus method is much more suitable in the calculation of land subsidence caused by buildings in the Yellow River Delta, the undisturbed soil tangent modulus method is used to calculate the land subsidence caused by the buildings in Dongying. We collected remote sensing images of the Yellow River Delta (Dongying) in 2007-2010, and then preprocessing those images. Through the combination of computer automatic classification and visual interpretation, building changes in the study area from 2007-2010 are interpreted. In the selected new built-up intensive area in 2010, through the image interpretation and data collection, we got new built-up area construction parameters such as built-up area, covered area and average layer number of buildings. Then we used the suitable method, undisturbed soil tangent modulus method, to calculate the settlement of the new built-up area, and analyzed the selection of the thickness of compressible stratum. The results showed that the stress control method is more appropriate to the thickness of compressed layer of buildings with a large area. The land subsidence is 7.52mm/a from 2007 to 2010 in Dongying district. The results are in accordance with the existing data.
Less parameters are required in the calculation process, and the remote sensing images are also easy to be obtained, so manpower and material resources can be saved. This paper provides a method for calculating the settlement caused by regional building construction.
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/136526
专题海洋地质与环境重点实验室
作者单位中国科学院海洋研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
徐丽雯. 黄河三角洲地区建筑物地面沉降量计算方法研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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