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Salinity and temperature significantly influence seed germination, seedling establishment, and seedling growth of eelgrass Zostera marina L.
Xu, Shaochun1,2; Zhou, Yi1,3; Wang, Pengmei1,2; Wang, Feng1,2; Zhang, Xiaomei1,2; Gu, Ruiting1,2
2016-11-15
发表期刊PEERJ
卷号4
文章类型Article
摘要Globally, seagrass beds have been recognized as critical yet declining coastal habitats. To mitigate seagrass losses, seagrass restorations have been conducted in worldwide over the past two decades. Seed utilization is considered to be an important approach in seagrass restoration efforts. In this study, we investigated the effects of salinity and temperature on seed germination, seedling establishment, and seedling growth of eelgrass Zostera marina L. (Swan Lake, northern China). We initially tested the effects of salinity (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 ppt) and water temperature (5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees C) on seed germination to identify optimal levels. To identify levels of salinity that could potentially limit survival and growth, and, consequently, the spatial distribution of seedlings in temperate estuaries, we then examined the effect of freshwater and other salinity levels (10, 20, and 30 ppt) on seedling growth and establishment to confirm suitable conditions for seedling development. Finally, we examined the effect of transferring germinated seeds from freshwater or low salinity levels (1, 5, and 15 ppt) to natural seawater (32 ppt) on seedling establishment rate (SER) at 15 degrees C. In our research, we found that: (1) Mature seeds had a considerably lower moisture content than immature seeds; therefore, moisture content may be a potential indicator of Z. marina seed maturity; (2) Seed germination significantly increased at low salinity (p < 0.001) and high temperature (p < 0.001). Salinity had a much stronger influence on seed germination than temperature. Maximum seed germination (88.67 +/- 5.77%) was recorded in freshwater at 15 degrees C; (3) Freshwater and low salinity levels (< 20 ppt) increased germination but had a strong negative effect on seedling morphology (number of leaves per seedling reduced from 2 to 0, and maximum seedling leaf length reduced from 4.48 to 0 cm) and growth (seedling biomass reduced by 46.15-66.67% and maximum seedling length reduced by 21.16-69.50%). However, Z. marina performed almost equally well at salinities of 20 and 30 ppt. Very few germinated seeds completed leaf differentiation and seedling establishment in freshwater or at low salinity, implying that freshwater and low salinity may potentially limit the distribution of this species in coastal and estuarine waters. Therefore, the optimum salinity for Z. marina seedling establishment and colonization appears to be above 20 ppt in natural beds; ( 4) Seeds germinated in freshwater or at low salinity levels could be transferred to natural seawater to accomplish seedling establishment and colonization. This may be the optimal method for the adoption of seed utilization in seagrass restoration. We also identified seven stages of seed germination and seedling metamorphosis in order to characterize growth and developmental characteristics. Our results may serve as useful information for Z. marina habitat establishment and restoration programs.
关键词Zostera Marina L. Salinity Temperature Seed Germination Seedling Establishment Seedling Growth Seagrass
DOI10.7717/peerj.2697
收录类别SCI
语种英语
WOS记录号WOS:000388083600008
引用统计
被引频次:2[WOS]   [WOS记录]     [WOS相关记录]
文献类型期刊论文
版本出版稿
条目标识符http://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/136209
专题海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室
作者单位1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Oceanol, Key Lab Marine Ecol & Environm Sci, Qingdao, Peoples R China
2.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Dept Biosci, Beijing, Peoples R China
3.Qingdao Natl Lab Marine Sci & Technol, Lab Marine Ecol & Environm Sci, Qingdao, Peoples R China
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GB/T 7714
Xu, Shaochun,Zhou, Yi,Wang, Pengmei,et al. Salinity and temperature significantly influence seed germination, seedling establishment, and seedling growth of eelgrass Zostera marina L.[J]. PEERJ,2016,4.
APA Xu, Shaochun,Zhou, Yi,Wang, Pengmei,Wang, Feng,Zhang, Xiaomei,&Gu, Ruiting.(2016).Salinity and temperature significantly influence seed germination, seedling establishment, and seedling growth of eelgrass Zostera marina L..PEERJ,4.
MLA Xu, Shaochun,et al."Salinity and temperature significantly influence seed germination, seedling establishment, and seedling growth of eelgrass Zostera marina L.".PEERJ 4(2016).
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