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热带西太平洋及南海北部陆坡海区浮游纤毛虫的垂直分布
王超锋1,2
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张武昌
2016-05-10
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline海洋生态学
Keyword浮游纤毛虫 垂直分布 雅浦海山 热带西太平洋菲律宾海 南海北部陆坡
Abstract海洋微型浮游动物纤毛虫是指在海洋水体中营浮游生活、个体微小(多数体长10-200 μm)、分布广泛的单细胞原生动物,隶属于原生动物界、纤毛门、旋毛纲、寡毛亚纲及环毛亚纲,包括无壳纤毛虫和砂壳纤毛虫两大部分。浮游纤毛虫是海洋浮游生态系统的重要组成部分,是链接微食物环和经典食物链的重要中介,在海洋生态系统的物质循环和能量流动中发挥重要作用,其生态学的研究具有重要意义。
有关浮游纤毛虫全水深垂直分布的基础资料研究较少,本论文以海洋浮游纤毛虫为研究对象,汇总了不同海区以往垂直分布的相关资料,研究了热带西太平洋菲律宾海雅浦海山区和南海北部陆坡海区浮游纤毛虫丰度、生物量及其全水深垂直分布模式、无壳纤毛虫粒级以及海区的砂壳纤毛虫群落在不同水层中的生态分布特征,并对不同垂直分布模式下浮游纤毛虫丰度与叶绿素之间的关系进行了初步探讨。
 
热带西太平洋菲律宾海区及雅浦海山区浮游纤毛虫的垂直分布
    我们于2014年12月至2015年1月在热带西太平洋沿台湾南部到雅浦海山一个断面和雅浦海山区对浮游纤毛虫丰度和生物量的垂直分布以及其群落结构进行了研究,发现海区浮游纤毛虫丰度变化范围为0-635 ind/L,生物量范围为0-1.53 μg C/L,丰度和生物量高值分布于200 m以浅,其中,砂壳纤毛虫丰度为0-45 ind/L,占总纤毛虫丰度的比例在0-14.62%之间。浮游纤毛虫丰度垂直分布均呈现“双峰型”模式:在表层和叶绿素极大值层(DCM)出现丰度高值。浮游纤毛虫丰度与叶绿素活体荧光值之间有显著相关关系。大于50 μm粒级的无壳纤毛虫更多的分布在海区表层。共鉴定出砂壳纤毛虫33属76种,海区砂壳纤毛虫类群主要以广布型(13属37种)和暖水型(14属31种)为主,分别占总砂壳纤毛虫种类的48.7%和40.8%。雅浦海山区优势种为纤弱细瓮虫、卢氏真铃虫、管状真铃虫、膨大波膜虫,热带西太平洋菲律宾海区优势种为纤弱细瓮虫、海勒斯真铃虫、酒杯类管虫、尖锐号角虫。有些种类分布在100 m以浅(如热带铃壳虫、长芒孔铃虫等),有些种类分布在100 m以深(如微细类铃虫、罗氏拟波膜虫等),说明砂壳纤毛虫在100 m水深左右种类组成发生变化。
 
南海北部陆坡区浮游纤毛虫的垂直分布
大洋水团和陆架水团在南海北部陆坡海区相交汇,因此,陆架海区与大洋海区环境下的浮游纤毛虫的生物学特征应该不同。陆架海区浮游纤毛虫丰度呈现“表层高”或者“次表层高”模式,和叶绿素极大值层(DCM)没有相关性。分别于2014年10月、2015年6月在南海北部陆坡海区研究了浮游纤毛虫丰度和生物量的全水深垂直分布。浮游纤毛虫丰度变化范围为0-1353 ind/L,生物量范围为0-2.36 μg C/L,丰度和生物量高值分布于200 m以浅,大于50 μm粒级的无壳纤毛虫多分布在表层。浮游纤毛虫丰度垂直分布呈现“表层高”、“次表层高”和“双峰型”三种模式,其中“双峰型”模式为表层和DCM有浮游纤毛虫丰度高值,不同的分布模式可能指示不同的水团性质,其中“双峰型”中浮游纤毛虫丰度与叶绿素活体荧光值之间有显著相关关系。共鉴定出砂壳纤毛虫34属82种,砂壳纤毛虫丰度变化范围为0-129 ind/L,占总纤毛虫丰度的比例在0 – 80%之间。南海北部陆坡区秋季主要优势种为福雷号角虫、开孔真铃虫、梯状网梯虫和酒杯类管虫,夏季主要优势种为福雷号角虫、酒杯类管虫、尖锐号角虫及微细原孔虫。砂壳纤毛虫种类如简单薄铃虫、大洋铃鼻虫、百乐拟铃虫、罗氏拟铃虫、根状拟铃虫、盾形拟铃虫和筒状拟铃虫仅出现在陆架海区,大洋海区砂壳纤毛虫种类多属于透明壳类群。有些种类分布在100 m以浅(如尖底类瓮虫、梯状网梯虫等),有的种类分布在100 m以深(如阿加西尖角虫、爱普汀领砂虫等),说明砂壳纤毛虫在100 m水深左右种类组成发生变化。
Other AbstractMarine planktonic ciliates are unicellular, eukaryotic protists (size range of 10-200 μm) and ubiquitous in various marine habitats. They are belong to Protozoa-Ciliophora-Oligotrichea-Oligotrichina and Tintinnina, including aloricate ciliates and tintinnids. Microzooplankton is a key trophic group in pelagic ecosystems, as these organisms consume most of the primary production. As the dominant component of the microzooplankton, Planktonic ciliate is a key medium through microbial food web to classical food chain, which play an important role in material circulation and energy flow of marine ecosystem.
    Vertical distribution of planktonic ciliates in different sea regions are limited. In this study, we collect some relevant information about vertical distribution of planktonic ciliates in different sea regions, and the abundance, biomass, spacial and full-depth vertical distribution of planktonic ciliates, size-fraction of the aloricate ciliates, species richness of tintinnids in the Yap seamount and western Pacific and the slope of the northern South China Sea area. We have a preliminary study about the correlation between the ciliates abundance and the Chl a in vivo fluorescence in different vertical distribution patterns.
 
Vertical distribution of planktonic ciliates in tropical western pacific of Philippine sea region and the Yap seamount area
The full-depth abundance and biomass and community structure of planktonic ciliates were investigated in the Yap seamount area and along a transect from south Taiwan to Yap seamount in western Pacific from December 2014 to January 2015. Abundance and biomass ranged from 0 to 635 ind/L, and from 0 to 1.53 μg C/L, respectively. High abundance and biomass were found in the upper 200 m. The abundance of tintinnid ranged from 0 to 45 ind/L, and occupied 0-14.62% of the total ciliates abundance in all stations of the layers in 0-200 m. The size-fraction of the aloricate ciliates which above 50 μm were most appeared in the surface layer. The vertical distribution of planktonic ciliates abundance showed “Bimodal-peak” pattern in this area, and there have a very significant correlation between the ciliates abundance and the Chl a in vivo fluorescence. Ciliates abundance was high in the surface and the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) layers. This vertical distribution pattern was different from previous studies. In taxonomy, 76 tintinnid species of 33 genera were identified. Cosmopolitan (37 tintinnid species of 13 genera) and Warm water (31 tintinnid species of 14 genera) were the main pattern in this area and which occupied 48.7% and 40.8% in total tintinnids, respectively. The dominant species in the Yap Seamount were Steenstrupiella gracilis, Eutintinnus lusus-undae, Eutintinnus tubulosus, Undella turgida and in the western pacific of Philippine sea region were Steenstrupiella gracilis, Eutintinnus haslaeDadayiella ganymedes, Salpingella acμminata. Some species occurred in waters shallower than 100 m (e.g. Codonella tropica, Poroecus apiculatus) while some occurred in waters deeper than 100 m (e.g. Codonellopsis parva, Parundella lohmanni). Therefore, the depth 100 m is where the tintinnid species composition changed.
 
Vertical distribution of planktonic ciliates in slope of northern South China Sea
Oceanic water and continental water meet in the slope of the northern South China Sea. Therefore, biological characteristic of planktonic ciliates should be different in slope and oceanic area. Planktonic ciliates abundance in the continental waters showed “Surface-peak” or “Subsurface-peak” pattern, independent from the deep chlorophyll a maximum layer (DCM) which is at deeper depth. We inspected the vertical distribution of planktonic ciliates in shelf-slope waters of northern south China Sea in October, 2014 and June, 2015, respectively. Abundance and biomass of ciliates ranged from 0 to 1353 ind/L, and from 0 to 2.36 μg C/L, respectively. High abundance and biomass were found in the upper 200 m. The size-fraction of the aloricate ciliates which above 50 μm were most appeared in the surface layer. The vertical distribution of planktonic ciliates abundance showed “surface-peak”, “subsurface-peak” and “bimodal-peak” pattern in this area, and the “bimodal-peak” pattern showed abundance peaks in surface water and DCM layer. The different vertical distribution patterns could be used to indicate the different origin of the water masses. In the patterns of bimodal-peak, there have a very significant correlation between the ciliates abundance and the Chl a in vivo fluorescence. 82 tintinnid species of 34 genera were identified. In autumn of this area, 63 tintinnid species of 29 genera were identified and the Cosmopolitan (28 tintinnid species of 11 genera) with Warm water (25 tintinnid species of 12 genera) were the main pattern in this season, which occupied 48.7% and 40.8% in total tintinnids, respectively. In summer of this area, 67 tintinnid species of 30 genera were identified and the Cosmopolitan (31 tintinnid species of 12 genera) and Warm water (26 tintinnid species of 11 genera) also were the main pattern in this season and which occupied 48.7% and 40.8% in total tintinnids, respectively. The abundance of tintinnid ranged from 0 to 129 ind/L, and occupied 0-80% of the total ciliates abundance in all stations of the layers in 0-200 m. The dominant species in autumn were Salpingella faurei, Eutintinnus apertus, Climacocylis scalaroidesDadayiella ganymedes and in summer were Salpingella faurei, Dadayiella ganymedes, Salpingella acuminata, Proplectella parva. Tintinnid species like Leprotintinnus simplex, Codonaria oceanica, Tintinnopsis beroidea, T. lohmanni, T. radix, T. urnula, T. tubulosoides only occured in continental water, and the tintinnid species occured in oceanic water mostly were hyaline species. Some species occurred in waters shallower than 100 m (e.g. Amphorellopsis acuta, Climacocylis scalaroides) while some occurred in waters deeper than 100 m (e.g. Albatrossiella agassizi, Ormosella apsteini). Therefore, the depth 100 m is where the tintinnid species composition changed.

Subject Area海洋科学其他学科
Language英语
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/112513
Collection海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室
Affiliation1.中国科学院海洋研究所
2.中国科学院大学
First Author AffilicationInstitute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王超锋. 热带西太平洋及南海北部陆坡海区浮游纤毛虫的垂直分布[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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