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西太平洋深海海绵动物分类学及其相关种属的分子系统发育关系初步研究
龚琳
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor李新正
2016-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline海洋生物学
Keyword深海 海绵 六放海绵 寻常海绵 分类学 系统发育
Abstract
海绵动物是深海较常见的生物类群之一,是深海生态系统的重要组成部分。
骨针和骨骼是海绵分类的最主要依据,但骨针和骨骼包含的分类信息较少,且海
绵外形具有高度的可塑性,导致海绵分类鉴定非常得困难。我国海绵分类学方面
已有的研究工作较少,整个研究处于起步阶段。
本论文主要采用传统的形态学方法,以于2013 年到2015 年采集于南海,冲
绳海槽和雅浦三个海域的深海海绵为研究材料,涵盖海山,冷泉,热液等不同的
生境。本研究共收录西太平洋深海海绵2 纲,6 目,17 科,21 属,24 种,包括
2 个新属,10 个新种,其中南海报道了7 种,冲绳海槽报道了7 种,雅浦海山
报道了10 种。在这些种中,有三个种的海绵样品在采集时已经死亡,由于缺乏
骨针形态无法进行具体地鉴定,只能鉴定到科或属。本文提供了各个种的详细描
述信息,形态图片,骨针电镜图片和部分种的骨骼图片,是我国首次较为系统、
较为详细地开展深海海绵分类学的研究工作,完善了我国海绵分类系统学研究体
系,为印度-太平洋海域的海绵动物分类学和动物地理学研究提供了重要基础资
料。
本研究还对各实验材料进行了DNA 提取,获得了21 个种的16S rDNA 基因
片段,并初步探讨了文中描述的种及其相关种属的系统发育关系,为海绵系统演
化关系提供了分子生物学数据。在海绵中运用较普遍的分子标记有18S rDNA,
28S rDNA 和COI 基因,但不同分类阶元运用的引物不同,目前海绵不具有通用
的引物,本文发现运用引物16S1fw/16SH mod 对文中描述的六放海绵纲和寻常
海绵纲的种能较高效地获得其16S rDNA 基因片段,对于是否能高效地用于扩增
整个海绵动物门的种仍需进一步的实验探讨。
Other Abstract
Porifera can be easily found in deep ocean. Morphological plasticity and limited
information obtained from spicules and skeletons make deep-sea sponge classification
very difficult. The sponge taxonomy studies in China are very limited, there are
almost no recodes for deep sea sponge in China. This study performed taxonomic
studies for deep sea sponges, provided valuable information for their biodiversity and
distribution.
In the study of this thesie, traditional morphological method was used to classify
the sponge samples. The study samples were collected respectively from the South
China Sea, Okinawa Trough and Yap area, West Pacific Ocean, during 2013 to 2015.
They were found from the environment from seamounts, hydrothermal vents, cold
seeps and other deep-sea areas. After sorting the samples, 24 sponges species
belonging to 2 classes, 6 orders, 17 families, 21 genera were identified, in which 2
genera, 10 species were new to science. Among the 24 species, 7, 7, 10 were found
from the South China sea, Okinawa Trough and Yap area respectively. In the samples,
3 specimens were dead when they wre collected, it was too hard to identify them into
species level, however, it is clear that the present three diffirent families. All the
species were described detailedly, with the SEM illustration of spicules and skeleton.
This study is the first approach on the deep-sea sponge in China. The above results
provide important supplements for the deep sea sponge taxonomy study in China.
They can be also served as valuable background for the subsequent sponge taxonomic
researches.
The phylogenetic relationships of the 24 species and their related species were
also studied with molecular methods. Partial mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes
of 21 species were amplified (the three species with dead specimens were not
included in the molecular study). Based on the amplicons, a phylogentic tree was built
and performed preliminary investigation into the relationship of these species. The
primers for sponge molecular research were also experimented, because up to date,
there were no suitable universal primers for all the sponges groups. The existed universal primers were usually corresponding to different taxonomic categories. In
this study, primer 16S1fw and 16SHmod were found efficient for both our
Demospongiae and glass sponge samples. The availability of this pair of primers in
other sponge groups should be test in the subsequent studies.
Subject Area生物学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/112493
Collection海洋生物分类与系统演化实验室
Affiliation中国科学院海洋研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
龚琳. 西太平洋深海海绵动物分类学及其相关种属的分子系统发育关系初步研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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