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前三岛海域底层鱼类群落结构、摄食生态和运动行为特征
其他题名Community structure, feeding ecology and movement behaviors of demersal fish around Qiansan Islets
张迎秋
学位类型博士
导师杨红生 ; 许强
2015-11-08
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业海洋生态学
关键词前三岛 鱼类群落结构 摄食生态 声学遥测 运动行为
摘要20世纪以来,人类对海洋生物的过度捕捞和其他海洋产业的发展,导致全球海洋生物种群持续衰退,近岸海域(如海州湾)鱼类种群衰竭和栖息地退化,渔业资源显著衰退。为努力实现全球渔业可持续发展,渔业资源修复工作在全球范围内广泛开展,如圈定海洋保护区,人工鱼礁投放修复受损生境,以及制定保护性管理措施。
自2005年以来在海州湾前三岛海域开展了人工鱼礁投放等生物资源修复工作,但该区域渔业资源恢复状况缺乏系统性监测。2013年5月-2014年4月,对前三岛海域底层鱼类群落采样调查共渔获鱼类6目15科22种:大泷六线鱼、许氏平鲉、斑头鱼和星康吉鳗等属于常年性岩礁鱼类,是该区域鱼类群落的优势种;花鲈、大头鳕、鲹科和鲭科种类为季节性洄游鱼类。应用典范对应分析(CCA)方法分析了环境因子对鱼类群落结构的影响,结果表明:鱼类时空分布主要受底层水温和底层水体溶解氧含量的影响。斑头鱼、五带高鳍鰕虎鱼、褐牙鲆、铠平鲉、鲐和高体鰤资源量与底层水温密切正相关;大头鳕和大泷六线鱼资源量与底层水体溶解氧含量关系最为密切,且大头鳕仅分布在低温季节具有较高溶解氧的深水区;许氏平鲉和星康吉鳗在研究区域广泛分布。基于稳定氮同位素法确定了鱼类营养级,多数常年性岩礁鱼类位于第四营养级(3.4~4.0级),属于高级肉食性动物;花鲈和大头鳕处于最高营养级(>4.0级),是顶级捕食者。
基于胃含物分析和稳定碳氮同位素分析,对斑头鱼、大泷六线鱼、许氏平鲉(岩礁鱼类)和洄游鱼类花鲈进行了摄食生态学研究。斑头鱼和大泷六线鱼主要摄食蟹类、鱼类和端足类,兼食藻类和多毛类等,许氏平鲉和花鲈主要以鱼类和虾类为食。Schoener重叠指数表明四种鱼类不存在显著食性重叠,单因素相似性分析(ANOSIM)表明种间食性差异显著。花鲈δ15N和δ13C显著高于三种岩礁鱼类,表明花鲈与三种岩礁鱼类营养生态位具有显著差异。三种岩礁鱼类之间δ15N、δ13C范围交互重叠,表明三种岩礁鱼类营养生态位相近,尤其是大泷六线鱼和许氏平鲉,但是较低的Schoener重叠指数(< 0.6)和显著的种间食物组成差异(ANOSIM)共同表明:三种岩礁鱼类之间存在食性分化。
对许氏平鲉持续46天的遥测跟踪研究表明,在研究区域内许氏平鲉具有较高的栖息地忠诚度,栖息地指数为0.90 ± 0.13,而且多数个体在接收器阵列中的一个分区被连续监测到。许氏平鲉信号频次日间显著高于夜间,但连续小波变换分析表明信号频次仅在部分时间段呈现显著昼夜周期(24 h)。栖息地选择指数计算结果表明许氏平鲉对自然岩礁、人工鱼礁分布的砂底和砾石底具有偏好性。许氏平鲉垂直移动主要表现为底栖习性,且垂直移动具有昼夜周期、半日周期和无周期性三种模式。该研究结果对采捕许氏平鲉、海洋保护区的圈定以及关键栖息地的识别具有重要意义,对许氏平鲉的可持续利用和深入研究具有借鉴性意义。
其他摘要Since the 20th century, overexploitation on marine organisms and developments of other marine industries, have caused the continuing marine defaunation around the globe. The fishery resource decay in coastal areas (e.g. Haizhou Bay) is notable in fish stocks declining and habitats lost. For sustainable fishery development, a great amount of stock recovery efforts, including the delineation of Marine Protected Area, deployments of artificial reefs to recover damaged habitats, and establishing measures on protective management, have been taken globally.
The restoration of marine resources around Qiansan Islets in Haizhou Bay has been being carried out since 2005. However, after such restoration efforts, there was no systemic investigation of fishery resource around Qiansan Islets. A series of sampling survey on demersal fish around Qiansan Islets were taken from May 2013 to April 2014 and all caught fish were identified to 22 species 15 families 6 orders: perennial rockfish species (PRS), including Hexagrammos otakii, Sebastes schlegelii, Hexagrammos agrammus, Conger myriaster and etc. are dominant species; Chinese temperate sea bass Lateolabrax maculatus, pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus and species of Carangidae and Scombridae are seasonal migrational species (SMS). The results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), which was used to analyzed the effect of environmental factors on fish community structure, suggest that the distribution of fish are mainly influenced by bottom water temperature and dissolved oxygen in bottom water. The bottom water temperature has a positive effect on the biomass of H. agrammus, Pterogobius zacalles, Paralichthys olivaceus, Sebastes hubbsi, Scomber japonicus and Seriola dumerili. The biomass of both G. macrocephalus and H. otakii is of close relationship with dissolved oxygen in bottom water, and G. macrocephalus was only distributed in deep water of high dissolved oxygen in seasons of low temperature. Species of S. schlegelii, C. myriaster and S. pachycephalus were distributed widely in the study area.
Through stomach analysis and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, we studyed the feeding ecology of H. agrammus, H. otakii, S. schlegelii (three rockfish species) and the migrational species L. maculatus. The results revealed that H. agrammus and H. otakii mainly fed on crabs, fish and amphipoda, and also ate shrimps and polychaeta. S. schlegelii and L. maculatus consumed a high proportion of fish and shrimps. Schoener’s index suggested no significant dietary overlap among the four species, and one way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated significant dietary differences among species. δ15N and δ13C of L. maculatus were significantly higher than the other three rockfish species, which indicate that the trophic niche differed significantly between L. maculatus and the rockfish species. The overlapped δ15N range and δ13C range, lower Schoener’s index (< 0.6) and significant food composition differences (by ANOSIM) among the three rockfish species, indicated that they had simmilary trophich niches, especially for S. schlegelii and H. otakii, but partitioned in prey resources.
A short-term (with a tracking period of up to 46 d) acoustic tracking was conducted on the black rockfish S. schlegeli. The average residence index (the ratio of detected days to the total period from release to the last detection) in the study area was 0.92 ± 0.13, and most of the tagged fish were detected by only one region of the acoustic receiver array, suggesting relatively high site fidelity to the study area. Acoustic tracking also suggested that this species is more frequently detected during the day than at night in our study area. However, the diel detection periodicity (24 h) was only evident for certain periods of the tracking time, as revealed by a continuous wavelet transform. The habitat selection index of tagged S. schlegelii suggested that S. schlegelii preferred natural reefs, mixed sand/artificial reef bottoms and mixed bottoms of boulder, cobble, gravel and artificial reefs. The vertical movement of tagged S. schlegelii was mostly characterized by bottom dwelling behavior, and there was high individual variability in the vertical migration pattern. Our results have important implications for S. schlegelii catchability, the implementation of marine protected areas, and the identification of key species habitats, and our study provides novel information for future studies on the sustainability of this important marine resource in eastern China.
学科领域海洋生态与环境科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/53125
专题海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室
作者单位1.中国科学院海洋研究所
2.中国科学院大学
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GB/T 7714
张迎秋. 前三岛海域底层鱼类群落结构、摄食生态和运动行为特征[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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