IOCAS-IR  > 海洋生物分类与系统演化实验室
热带西太平洋海山黑珊瑚目分类学和分子系统发育研究
吕婷
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor徐奎栋
2024-05-17
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院海洋研究所
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline海洋生物学
Keyword深海 黑珊瑚 分类学 系统发育 生物多样性
Abstract

黑珊瑚隶属刺胞动物门、珊瑚亚门、六放珊瑚纲、黑珊瑚目,广泛分布于全球海域,大部分为深海种,且主要生活在海山等硬底生境中,已知有750301种。黑珊瑚是海山的重要生物类群,也是深海脆弱海洋生态系统的指示物种。黑珊瑚具有很高的经济价值和观赏价值,导致其在一些区域被过度捕捞,已被列入世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)的红色名录以及濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约(CITES)名单。目前,有关黑珊瑚的研究主要集中在北大西洋,北太平洋和新西兰周边海域。热带西太平洋生物多样性极为丰富,海山密集分布,却是黑珊瑚采样严重不足的区域。迄今,有关该区域海山的黑珊瑚报道很少,对于该区域海山黑珊瑚的主要物种组成及分布状况有待探究。此外,黑珊瑚目中的黑珊瑚科Antipathidae、枝黑珊瑚科Cladopathidae和裂黑珊瑚科Schizopathidae并非单系群,且裂黑珊瑚科内部分属种地位也不明确,亟需提供分子系统学手段予以澄清。

本研究基于热带西太平洋11座海山采集到的111号黑珊瑚样本,通过形态学和结合分子数据,开展了分类学与系统发育研究。共鉴定黑珊瑚51641种,发现1新属27新种,14新记录种。其中,裂黑珊瑚科涉925种,含1新属16新种;枝黑珊瑚科涉48种,含8新种;黑珊瑚科涉13种;平黑珊瑚科涉12种;柱黑珊瑚科涉13种,含3新种。本研究已发表裂黑珊瑚科三新种一新记录种,分别为长茎深海黑珊瑚Bathypathes longicaulis Lü, Zhan, Li & Xu, 2024,长刺交替黑珊瑚Alternatipathes longispina Lü, Zhan, Li & Xu, 2024,多叉深海黑珊瑚Bathypathes multifurcata Lü, Zhan & Xu, 2024和伪交替深海黑珊瑚Bathypathes pseudoalternata Molodtsova, Opresko & Wagner, 2022

利用核糖体DNA内转录间隔区ITS1-5.8S-ITS2和三个线粒体片段cox3-IGR-cox1COI),trnW-IGR-nad2NAD2)和nad5-IGR-nad1NAD1)对裂黑珊瑚科开展了系统发育研究,建立了近对生黑珊瑚属(新属)Suboppositipathes gen. nov.,该属与十字黑珊瑚属Stauropathes和飞镖黑珊瑚属Telopathes亲缘关系最近;发现交替黑珊瑚属Alternatipathes并非单系群,该属和伞状黑珊瑚属Umbellapathes亲缘关系最近。利用GenBank数据库中深海黑珊瑚Bathypathes的所有已知种序列构建的系统发育树显示Bathypathes是多系群BathypathesTelopathes以及Stauropathes亲缘关系最近;长茎深海黑珊瑚Bathypathes longicaulis和大飞镖黑珊瑚相似种Telopathes cf. magna形成姐妹分枝。此外,基于多基因系统发育树的拓扑结构,将Bathypathes分为四组,其中,A组主要特征珊瑚不分枝,羽枝近对生排列;B组主要特征珊瑚不分枝,羽枝互生排列,没有羽枝的茎较短;C组主要特征珊瑚不分枝,羽枝互生排列,没有羽枝的茎较长;D组主要特征成熟个体(高于40 cm)分枝,幼年个体(小于40 cm)没有分枝,羽枝互生排列。

对热带西太平洋海山的黑珊瑚物种分析发现,不同海山间的黑珊瑚物种重叠率0–30%,不同海山区(雅浦海沟附近的Y3海山,马里亚纳海沟附近的M2海山,卡罗琳洋脊海山区M4–M8海山,麦哲伦海山区的Kocebu Guyot海山,九州帕劳洋脊北端海山和南端海山,南海珍贝海山)的特有种占比为0–34.2%,且以南海珍贝海山的物种特异性最高。卡罗琳洋脊距离较近的M4–M8海山之间黑珊瑚物种重叠率为0–44.4%特有种占比为0–23%其中以M4海山和M5海山物种特异性最高,M5海山物种最丰富。此外,融合海洋生物多样性信息系统(OBIS)和生物多样性信息网络(GBIF)两大数据库以及71份文献所涉的26616004条黑珊瑚记录,绘制了全球黑珊瑚的物种多样性地图,发现水深200 m以浅的海域中东海的物种最丰富,而水深200 m以深以新西兰周边海域的物种最丰富。

本研究通过分类学结合分子系统发育分析,发现并描述27个热带西太平洋深海海山黑珊瑚新种和14个新记录种,明晰了热带西太平洋海山黑珊瑚的物种多样性构成及其分布。基于获取的深海黑珊瑚的分子信息,理清裂黑珊瑚科中深海黑珊瑚属Bathypathes,交替黑珊瑚属Alternatipathes和近对生黑珊瑚属Suboppositipathes gen. nov.的亲缘关系。本研究对于深海生物多样性保护,生物资源利用和深海保护区的设立具有重要意义。

Other Abstract

The order Antipatharia, commonly known as black corals, are an order within the anthozoan class Hexacorallia. To date, the order contains 7 families, 50 genera and 301 species. Black corals are widely distributed in world oceans. Most black corals lives in hard bottomed habitats such as seamounts. Black corals are important biological groups in seamounts and indicator species of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs). Due to the high economic and ornamental value of black coral, it has been overfished in some regions. Black corals have been included in the Red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and list of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). The research on black corals mainly focuses on the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and New Zealand. Tropical Western Pacific is extremely rich in biodiversity, with dense distribution of seamounts, but it is an area where black coral sampling is severely lacking. So far, there have been few reports on black corals in the seamounts of the region, and the main species composition and distribution of black corals in the seamounts of the region need to be explored. In addition, Schizopathidae, Cladopathidae and Antipathidar are not monophyletic groups, and the status of some genera and species is also unclear. It is urgent to provide molecular systematic methods for clarification.

Based on 111 black coral specimens collected from 11 seamounts in the tropical Western Pacific, we performed taxonomic and phylogenetic studies through morphological and molecular data analyses. A total of 41 black coral species belonging to 16 genera and 5 families have been identified, including 1 new genus, 27 new species, and 14 new recorded species. The family Schizopathidae emcompasses 9 genera and 25 species, including 1 new genus and 16 new species. The family Cladopathidae emcompasses 4 genera and 8 species, including 8 new species. The family Antipathidae emcompasses 1 genera and 3 species. The family Leiopathidae emcompasses 1 genera and 2 species. The family Stylopathidae emcompasses 1 genera and 3 species, including 3 new species. Three new species and a newly recorded species have been published in this study, Bathypathes longicaulis Lü, Zhan, Li & Xu, 2024, Alternatipathes longispina Lü, Zhan, Li & Xu, 2024, Bathypathes multifurcata Lü, Zhan & Xu, 2024 and Bathypathes pseudoalternata Molodtsova, Opresko & Wagner, 2022.

Phylogenetic analyses of Schizopathidae were conducted by using the nuclear transcriptional spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and three mitochondrial fragments, cox3-IGR-cox1 (COI), trnW-IGR-nad2 (NAD2), and nad5-IGR-nad1 (NAD1). Phylogenetic reconstruction results established a new genus Suboppositipathes gen. nov., which is closely related to Stauropathes and Telopathes, and found that Alternatipathes is not a monophyletic group and is closely related to Umbellapathes. The phylogenetic relationship of Bathypathes was studied by using all known sequences of Bathypathes species from Genbank. Bathypathes is polyphyletic and closely related to Stauropathes and Telopathes. Bathypathes longcaulis formed a sister clade with Telopathes cf. magna. Based on the topology of the phylogenetic tree, Bathypathes is divided into four groups A–D. Group A is characterized by the unbranched colony and the subopposite arrangement of pinnules. Group B is characterized by the unbranched colony, the alternate arrangement of pinnules and relatively short unpinnulated stem. Group C is characterized by the unbranched colony, the alternate arrangement of pinnules and distinctly long unpinnulated stem. Within Group D, large colonies (higher than 40 cm) have one or a few branches, small colonies (less than 40 cm) are unbranched, and pinnules arranged alternately.

Analysis of black corals from seamounts in the tropical Western Pacific reveals that the overlap ratio of black coral species between different seamounts ranges from zero to 30%. The proportion of unique species in different seamount areas (Y3 seamount near Yapu Trench, M2 seamount near Mariana Trench, M4–M8 seamount in Caroline Ridge, Kocebu Guyot in Magellan, northern and southern seamounts of Kyushu Palau Ridge, and Zhenbei seamount in South China Sea) is in range of 0–34.2%, with Zhenbei seamount in South China Sea having the highest species specificity. The overlap ratio of black coral species between M4–M8 seamounts in the Caroline Ridge ranges from zero to 44.4%, and the proportion of endemic species ranges from zero to 23%. Among them, M4 and M5 seamounts have the highest species specificity, and M5 seamounts are the most abundant in species. In addition, by integrating the Marine Biodiversity Information System (OBIS) and Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF) databases, as well as 266 species and 16004 records of black corals from 71 references, a global map of black coral species diversity was drawn. It was found that the East China Sea had the richest species with water depth of 0–200 mm, while the waters around New Zealand had the richest species in waters below 200 m.

By using taxonomic and molecular phylogenetic analyses, this study described 27 new species and 14 new recorded species of black corals in deep-sea seamounts of the tropical western Pacific, clarifying the species diversity composition and distribution of black corals in tropical Western Pacific seamounts. Based on the obtained molecular sequences of deep-sea black corals, we clarify the phylogenetic relationships of Bathypathes, Alternatipathes, and Suboppositiathes gen. nov. of Schizopathidae. This study is of great significance for the protection of deep-sea biodiversity, the utilization of biological resources, and the establishment of deep-sea conservation areas.

MOST Discipline Catalogue理学
Language中文
Table of Contents

1 绪论... 1

1.1 黑珊瑚目分类系统与分类学特征... 1

1.1.1 黑珊瑚目分类系统... 1

1.1.2 黑珊瑚目分类学特征... 1

1.1.3 黑珊瑚术语... 4

1.1.4 黑珊瑚分布... 6

1.2 国内外研究进展及科学问题... 8

1.3 本研究目的和意义... 11

2 材料和方法... 12

2.1 材料来源... 12

2.2 形态学方法... 12

2.3 DNA提取与测序... 13

2.4 遗传距离及系统发育分析... 14

3 黑珊瑚目分类学研究... 15

3.1 裂黑珊瑚科Schizopathidae分类学研究... 17

3.1.1 深海黑珊瑚属Bathypathes Brook, 1889. 19

3.1.2 对生黑珊瑚属(新属)Suboppositipathes gen. nov. 73

3.1.3 交替黑珊瑚属Alternatipathes Molodtsova & Opresko, 2017. 79

3.1.4 裂黑珊瑚属Schizopathes Brook, 1889. 88

3.1.5 十字黑珊瑚属Stauropathes Opresko, 2002. 91

3.1.6 飞镖黑珊瑚属Telopathes MacIsaac & Best, 2013. 100

3.1.7 树黑珊瑚属 Dendropathes Opresko, 2005. 105

3.1.8 侧黑珊瑚属Parantipathes Brook, 1889. 107

3.1.9 伞状黑珊瑚属Umbellapathes Opresko, 2005. 112

3.2 枝黑珊瑚科Cladopathidae分类学研究... 126

3.2.1 三倍枝黑珊瑚属Trissopathes Brook, 1889. 127

3.2.2 金色枝黑珊瑚属Chrysopathes Opresko, 2003. 135

3.2.3 六倍枝黑珊瑚属Hexapathes Kinoshita, 1910. 140

3.2.4 变异枝黑珊瑚属Heteropathes Opresko, 2011. 155

3.3 平黑珊瑚科Leiopathidae 分类学研究... 159

3.3.1 平黑珊瑚属Leiopathes Haime, 1849. 159

3.4 柱黑珊瑚科Stylopathidae分类学研究... 163

3.4.1 柱黑珊瑚属Stylopathes Opresko, 2006. 164

3.5 黑珊瑚科Antipathidae分类学研究... 174

3.5.1 纵列黑珊瑚属Stichopathes Brook, 1889. 174

4 裂黑珊瑚科系统发育研究... 181

4.1 深海黑珊瑚属Bathypathes Brook, 1889的系统发育分析... 182

4.2 交替黑珊瑚属Alternatiapthes的系统发育分析... 194

4.3 新属近对生黑珊瑚属 Suboppositipathes的系统发育分析... 197

4.4 结论... 200

5 黑珊瑚在海山的分布研究... 201

5.1 各海山黑珊瑚的物种组成... 201

5.2 海山物种重叠和动物地理学初探... 205

6 结论与展望... 212

6.1 结论... 212

6.2 创新点... 213

6.3 研究展望... 213

参考文献... 215

  ... 223

作者简历及攻读学位期间发表的学术论文与其他相关学术成果... 224

Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/185215
Collection海洋生物分类与系统演化实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吕婷. 热带西太平洋海山黑珊瑚目分类学和分子系统发育研究[D]. 中国科学院海洋研究所. 中国科学院大学,2024.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
热带西太平洋海山黑珊瑚目分类学和分子系统(32597KB)学位论文 暂不开放CC BY-NC-SA
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[吕婷]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[吕婷]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[吕婷]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.