IOCAS-IR  > 海洋生物分类与系统演化实验室
西太平洋海山黑珊瑚生物多样性研究
吕婷
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor徐奎栋
2021-05-24
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院海洋研究所
Degree Name工程硕士
Keyword黑珊瑚 西太平洋 海山 新种 生物多样性
Abstract

黑珊瑚在全球海域广泛分布,在热带和亚热带海区水深50 m以下比较常见,且主要分布海山等硬底环境中,目前已知有746277种。黑珊瑚生长缓慢、寿命长、成熟晚,一旦破坏,则很难恢复。黑珊瑚因其价值高,在某些区域因过度捕捞和栖息地破坏严重而濒临灭绝,目前所有黑珊瑚已被列入国际自然和自然资源保护联盟(IUCN)的红色名录以及濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约(CITES)名单中,因此具有重要保护价值。目前,在西太平洋记录黑珊瑚共有723属,有关太平洋黑珊瑚的研究主要集中在东北太平洋、中太平洋和西南太平洋海域,本研究涉及的伞状黑珊瑚属Umbellapathes、飞镖黑珊瑚属Telopathes、飞镖黑珊瑚属Stauropathes、平黑珊瑚属Leiopathes为热带西太平洋首次记录,对于热带西太平洋海山的黑珊瑚尚未见报道。

本研究基于在热带西太平洋海山采集的31号黑珊瑚标本,通过形态学结合测序分析,开展了分类学与系统发育研究。共鉴定出黑珊瑚4科、8属、13种,发现7个新种,分别为小刺伞状黑珊瑚Umbellapathes parva sp. nov.、大刺交替黑珊瑚Alternatipathes magna sp. nov.、长茎深海黑珊瑚Bathypathes longa sp. nov.、大刺深海黑珊瑚Bathypathes magna sp. nov.、纤细深海黑珊瑚Bathypathes gracilis sp. nov.、冠状深海黑珊瑚Bathypathes corona sp. nov.和结节纵列黑珊瑚Stichopathes tuberosa sp. nov.。同时,利用核糖体DNA内转录间隔区ITS1-5.8S-ITS2和两个线粒体片段cox3-IGR-cox1COI)和trnW-IGR-nad2ND2)开展的系统发育分析结果显示,裂黑珊瑚科内深海黑珊瑚Bathypathes、十字黑珊瑚属Stauropathes和飞镖黑珊瑚属Telopathes有较近的亲缘关系,需要更多来自三个属的物种的序列来确认它们的单系性。Umbellapathes属和Alternatipathes属为姐妹群,Umbellapathes parva sp. nov.Alternatipathes bipinnata相对较远的遗传距离支持新种的确立。

本研究初步揭示热带西太平洋海山黑珊瑚的生物多样性构成,发现7个新种,丰富黑珊瑚的物种信息和基因库,探讨黑珊瑚目裂黑珊瑚科内的系统发育关系。本研究发现,黑珊瑚在西太平洋海山的分布上具有限定性,在相邻海山的共有种少,而7个黑珊瑚新种的发现也表明其可能具有一定的特异性,因而具有保护价值。开展深海黑珊瑚生物多样性和分布研究,对于深海生物多样性保护和生物资源利用具有重要意义。

Other Abstract

Black corals are widely distributed in all oceans around the world, especially at depths than 50 m in tropical and subtropical areas. Black corals are mainly distributed in hard bottom environments such as seamounts. To date, black corals encompass 7 families, 46 genera and 277 species. Black corals grow slowly, have long life spans and mature at an older age. It is difficult for black corals to recover from destruction. Black corals are endangered in some areas due to overfishing and severe habitat destruction because of its high value. Black corals have been included in the Red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and Convention on International trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) list, so they have significance conservation value. To date, there are 7 families and 23 genera of black corals recorded in the Western Pacific. Research on black corals in the Pacific Ocean is mainly concentrated on the Northeast Pacific, central Pacific and Southwest Pacific. The genus Umbellapathes, Telopathes, Stauropathes and Leiopathes involved in this study are new records in the tropical Western Pacific, the black corals from seamounts in the tropical Western Pacific have not been reported yet.

Based on 31 black corals specimens collected from seamounts in the tropical Western Pacific, we carried out a systematic study about taxonomy and phylogeny by morphological combined with sequencing analysis. A total of 13 species in 4 families, 8 genera were identified, including 7 new species (Umbellapathes parva sp. nov., Alternatipathes magna sp. nov., Bathypathes longa sp. nov., Bathypathes magna sp. nov., Bathypathes gracilis sp. nov., Bathypathes corona sp. nov., Stichopathes tuberosa sp. nov.). Meanwhile, we conducted phylogenetic analysis by using the nuclear transcriptional spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and two mitochondrial fragments cox3-IGR-cox1 (COI) and trnW-IGR-nad2 (ND2). Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that Telopathes, Stauropathes and Bathypathes have close relationships. More sequence data from more species of these genera are needed to confirm their monophylies. Umbellapathes formed a sister clade with Alternatipathes. The relatively long genetic distance between Umbellapathes parva sp. nov. and Alternatipathes bipinnata supports the establishment of new species.

In this study, we preliminarily revealed the composition of biodiversity of black corals in tropical Western Pacific seamounts, found 7 new species, enriched the species information and gene pool of black corals, and discussed the phylogenetic relationship of Schizopathidae. We also found that the distribution of black corals in the Western Pacific seamounts was limited and there were few common species in the adjacent seamounts. However, the discovery of 7 new species of black corals also indicated that the distribution of black corals may have certain specificity, so they have protection value. It is of great significance for biodiversity conservation of deep-sea black corals and biological resources utilization by conducting the research on biodiversity and distribution of deep-sea black corals.

Language中文
Table of Contents

第一章  绪论... 1

1.1 黑珊瑚目分类学特征及分布习性... 1

1.1.1 黑珊瑚目的分类学特征... 1

1.1.2 黑珊瑚的分布和习性... 3

1.1.3 黑珊瑚在全球的物种组成与分布... 5

1.2 黑珊瑚目分类系统... 6

1.2.1 黑珊瑚目各科分类检索... 6

1.3 国内外研究进展... 7

1.4 本研究背景和意义... 8

第二章  材料和方法... 11

2.1 实验材料和方法... 11

2.1.1 材料来源... 11

2.1.2 形态学方法... 11

2.1.3 测序及系统发育分析... 12

2.2 形态学术语... 13

2.2.1 一般术语... 13

2.2.2 形态学术语... 14

第三章  西太平洋海山黑珊瑚目生物多样性研究... 17

3.1 伞状黑珊瑚属Umbellapathes Opresko, 2005. 18

3.2 交替黑珊瑚属Alternatipathes Molodtsova & Opresko, 2017. 23

3.3 飞镖黑珊瑚属Telopathes MacIsaac & Best, 2013. 26

3.4 十字黑珊瑚属Stauropathes Opresko, 2002. 31

3.5 深海黑珊瑚属Bathypathes Brook, 1889. 35

3.6 异形枝黑珊瑚属Heteropathes Opresko, 2003. 50

3.7 纵列黑珊瑚属Stichopathes Brook, 1889. 53

3.8 平黑珊瑚属 Leiopathes Haime, 1849. 57

3.9 西太平洋海山黑珊瑚物种多样性及特异性... 61

第四章  三种黑珊瑚的系统发育研究... 63

4.1  黑珊瑚系统发育研究概况... 63

4.2 裂黑珊瑚科三物种的遗传距离... 63

4.3 裂黑珊瑚科三物种的系统发育分析... 64

4.4 结论... 68

第五章 黑珊瑚的保护... 69

5.1 黑珊瑚的生态价值... 69

5.2 黑珊瑚的应用价值... 70

5.3 黑珊瑚的保护... 70

第六章  结论... 72

参考文献... 74

致 谢... 84

作者简历及攻读学位期间发表的学术论文与研究成果... 85

Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/170667
Collection海洋生物分类与系统演化实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吕婷. 西太平洋海山黑珊瑚生物多样性研究[D]. 中国科学院海洋研究所. 中国科学院大学,2021.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
西太平洋海山黑珊瑚生物多样性研究.pdf(9525KB)学位论文 延迟开放CC BY-NC-SAView 2023-7-1后可获取
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[吕婷]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[吕婷]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[吕婷]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
File name: 西太平洋海山黑珊瑚生物多样性研究.pdf
Format: Adobe PDF
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.