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A strain of the toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum isolated from the East China Sea is an omnivorous phagotroph
Yang, Huijiao1,2,3,4; Hu, Zhangxi1,2,4; Shang, Lixia1,2,4; Deng, Yunyan1,2,4; Tang, Ying Zhong1,2,4
2020-03-01
Source PublicationHARMFUL ALGAE
ISSN1568-9883
Volume93Pages:16
Corresponding AuthorHu, Zhangxi(zhu@qdio.ac.cn) ; Tang, Ying Zhong(yingzhong.tang@qdio.ac.cn)
AbstractKarlodinium veneficum is a cosmopolitan, toxic, and harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate, of which the mixotrophy has been suggested to be a key factor in the formation and maintaining of HABs and thus deserves more intensive explorations. Here, we report an investigation on the phagotrophy of K. veneficum using a clonal culture isolated from the coastal water of East China Sea. We found K. veneficum is an omnivorous phagotroph feeding on both live and dead bodies/cells of a fish (Oryzias melastigma), brine shrimp (Artemia salina), rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis), cocultivated microalgae Akashiwo sanguinea, Margalefidinium polykrikoides, Alexandrium leei, Rhodomonas salina, Isochrysis galbana, and its own species. Karlodinium veneficum extracted the cell contents of all species provided through either a peduncle (i.e. myzocytosis) or by engulfing the whole cell of small preys (i.e. phagotrophy sensu stricto). Karlodinium veneficum preferred to ingest non-motile or newly dead preys, no matter whether they were fish, zooplankton, or phytoplankton. Importantly, K. veneficum exhibited micropredation on animals with sizes much larger than itself (fish, rotifer, and brine shrimp), especially when they were injured or newly dead. The LysoSensor- and LysoTracker-stained lysosomes or/and phagolysosomes of K. veneficum increased when preys were added. Cannibalism in K. veneficum, i.e. a cell feeds on other unhealthy or dead cells of the same species, was observed as the first time in the study, which can help the growth and elongated maintaining of the population under nutrient deficiency (i.e. the culture maintained viable in culture plates without nutrient supplement up to a year). The growth rate of K. veneficum exhibited significant positive correlation with ingestion rate, which differed among prey species, and the highest growth rate was observed when feeding on R. salina. The ingest ability of K. veneficum was triggered by nutrient deficiency. In conclusion, the omnivorous mixotrophy is proposed to be a key autecological mechanism for K. veneficum to widen its ecological niche and succeed in forming a cosmopolitan distribution and frequent blooms.
KeywordKarlodinium veneficum Omnivorous mixotrophy Myzocytosis Micropredation Cannibalism Lysosome
DOI10.1016/j.hal.2020.101775
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
Funding ProjectNational Science Foundation of China[61533011] ; National Science Foundation of China[41776125,41976134] ; National Key R&D Program of China[2017YFC1404300]
WOS Research AreaMarine & Freshwater Biology
WOS SubjectMarine & Freshwater Biology
WOS IDWOS:000527331100005
PublisherELSEVIER
Citation statistics
Cited Times:2[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/167287
Collection海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorHu, Zhangxi; Tang, Ying Zhong
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Oceanol, CAS Key Lab Marine Ecol & Environm Sci, Qingdao 266071, Peoples R China
2.Qingdao Natl Lab Marine Sci & Technol, Lab Marine Ecol & Environm Sci, Qingdao 266237, Peoples R China
3.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
4.Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Ocean Megasci, Qingdao 266071, Peoples R China
First Author AffilicationKey Laboratory of Marine Ecology & Environmental Sciences, CAS;  Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Corresponding Author AffilicationKey Laboratory of Marine Ecology & Environmental Sciences, CAS;  Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Yang, Huijiao,Hu, Zhangxi,Shang, Lixia,et al. A strain of the toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum isolated from the East China Sea is an omnivorous phagotroph[J]. HARMFUL ALGAE,2020,93:16.
APA Yang, Huijiao,Hu, Zhangxi,Shang, Lixia,Deng, Yunyan,&Tang, Ying Zhong.(2020).A strain of the toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum isolated from the East China Sea is an omnivorous phagotroph.HARMFUL ALGAE,93,16.
MLA Yang, Huijiao,et al."A strain of the toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum isolated from the East China Sea is an omnivorous phagotroph".HARMFUL ALGAE 93(2020):16.
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