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Evidence for resting cyst production in the cosmopolitan toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum and the cyst distribution in the China seas
Liu, Yuyang1,4; Hu, Zhangxi1,2,3; Deng, Yunyan1,2,3; Tang, Ying Zhong1,2,3
2020-03-01
Source PublicationHARMFUL ALGAE
ISSN1568-9883
Volume93Pages:13
Corresponding AuthorTang, Ying Zhong(yingzhong.tang@qdio.ac.cn)
AbstractThe naked dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum is a cosmopolitan and toxic species that frequently forms harmful algal blooms (HABs) in coastal waters. This species has been intensively studied from multiple aspects including toxicology, toxins, nutrition mode (e.g., mixotrophy, phagotrophy, etc.), blooming dynamics, allelopathy, and behavior, while the mechanisms accounting for its global distribution and possible invasion to new regions have not been investigated. Since the first report of a bloom of this species from the South China Sea in 2003, K. veneficum has been frequently detected in coastal waters of China. While resting cyst has been well documented to play vital roles in the initiation and decline of HABs and in facilitating geographical expansion of HABs species, whether or not K. veneficum forms resting cyst remains an open question. Here, we provide proofs for the resting cyst formation in K. veneficum based on both the observations on the life history of clonal cultures and cyst detections from field sediment. We microscopically observed the mating gametes, gametes in fusion, planozygotes (judged from the two longitudinal flagella and cell morphology such as a larger size), dark brown, thick-walled cysts with smooth surface, and cyst germination. The resting cyst was produced homothallically (i.e. from single clonal culture). We also determined the diploidity of cysts via measuring the copy numbers of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene in resting cysts and vegetative cells. The presence of K. veneficum cysts in field sediments was detected via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using species-specific probes, and further confirmed by single-cell PCR sequencing for the FISH-detected cysts. The distribution and abundance of K. veneficum cysts in the China Seas (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea) were mapped using a combined approach of real-time PCR and FISH, and quantified after measuring and taking into account the copy numbers of LSU rRNA gene in vegetative cells and cysts. We found a wide distribution of resting cysts of this organism in the seas of China, but generally with a low abundance in most of the samples (0 to 15 cysts per 32 g of wet sediment for FISH method; 0 to 25 cysts per 32 g of wet sediment for qPCR method). The confirmation of resting cyst production from both the laboratory cultures and field sediments and detection of a wide distribution of cysts in the China coasts in this study provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the frequent recurrences of blooms and the cosmopolitan distribution of K. veneficum. Our work also necessitates both a more intensive investigation on the life history (e.g. germination potential of cysts in the field) and an extensive cyst monitoring in coastal sediments, in order to better understand the general ecology and the bloom dynamics specific to this important species.
KeywordKarlodinium veneficum Resting cyst Distribution Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) Cyst mapping
DOI10.1016/j.hal.2020.101788
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
Funding ProjectNational Science Foundation of China[41976134] ; National Science Foundation of China[41776125] ; National Science Foundation of China[61533011] ; National Science Foundation of China[41476142] ; Marine S&T Fund of Shandong Province for Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao)[2018SDKJ0504-2] ; Science & Technology Basic Resources Investigation Program of China[2018FY100200] ; Key Deployment Project of Centre for Ocean Mega-Research of Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences[COMS2019Q09] ; Creative Team Project of the Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology[LMEES-CTSP-2018-1]
WOS Research AreaMarine & Freshwater Biology
WOS SubjectMarine & Freshwater Biology
WOS IDWOS:000527331100009
PublisherELSEVIER
Citation statistics
Cited Times:1[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/167245
Collection海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorTang, Ying Zhong
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Oceanol, CAS Key Lab Marine Ecol & Environm Sci, 7 Nanhai Rd, Qingdao 266071, Peoples R China
2.Qingdao Natl Lab Marine Sci & Technol, Lab Marine Ecol & Environm Sci, Qingdao 266237, Peoples R China
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Ocean Megasci, Qingdao 266071, Peoples R China
4.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
First Author AffilicationInstitute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Corresponding Author AffilicationInstitute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences;  Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Liu, Yuyang,Hu, Zhangxi,Deng, Yunyan,et al. Evidence for resting cyst production in the cosmopolitan toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum and the cyst distribution in the China seas[J]. HARMFUL ALGAE,2020,93:13.
APA Liu, Yuyang,Hu, Zhangxi,Deng, Yunyan,&Tang, Ying Zhong.(2020).Evidence for resting cyst production in the cosmopolitan toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum and the cyst distribution in the China seas.HARMFUL ALGAE,93,13.
MLA Liu, Yuyang,et al."Evidence for resting cyst production in the cosmopolitan toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum and the cyst distribution in the China seas".HARMFUL ALGAE 93(2020):13.
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