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中国海钙质海绵纲(多孔动物门)的系统分类学研究
初雁凌
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李新正
2020-05-19
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院海洋研究所
Abstract

海绵动物又称多孔动物,是结构最简单的多细胞滤食性动物,身体表面具有无数小孔,通过水在体内不断流动,完成呼吸、摄食、排泄、生殖等一系列生理活动。钙质海绵尽管种类数较少,仅有七百余种,占已知海绵物种的5%,但其分布范围广阔,在近海生态系统中占有重要地位。

中国海区的钙质海绵物种丰富,但尚未进行过系统的分类学研究,本研究采用传统的形态学分类方法,基于中国科学院海洋生物标本馆的馆藏标本和近年来采集于渤、黄海和南海的新鲜样品,查阅大量相关的文献资料,对中国沿海的钙质海绵做了较为系统的分类学研究,描记了钙质海绵纲2亚纲,2目,7科,9属,11种,包括3个新种,7个新记录种。这11种钙质海绵在名称上均不同于黄宗国(2012)在名录中列出的9种和刘瑞玉(2008)在名录中列出的4种钙质海绵,在丰富了中国钙质海绵纲物种多样性的同时,对黄宗国(2012)和刘瑞玉(2008)在名录中列出的9种钙质海绵到底是什么种提出疑问?如果这9种均不同于本研究描述的11种,则我国的已知钙质海绵将达到20种。本研究对钙质海绵的分类标准进行了总结修订,详细描述和整理了钙质海绵的形态学分类依据,通过示意图对钙质海绵的形态特征、水沟系类型、骨针类型、骨架类型等众多分类学性状进行了详细的解释,并对钙质海绵纲的检索表进行重新整理和完善。本研究在对部分已知物种进行重新描述的同时,补充了其骨针和骨架的显微照片,对相似属种的形态差异以及其在分类学上存在的争议进行了讨论;建立了部分属的分类检索表,并对其在太平洋区域的分布情况进行了讨论。研究发现,钙质海绵广泛分布于近岸浅海,在海参、鲍鱼等养殖场中十分常见,表明钙质海绵也是一类较为常见的污损生物。

本研究首次系统开展中国钙质海绵的分类学研究,丰富了中国海钙质海绵纲的物种多样性,补充了中国海多孔动物门系统分类学资料,为摸清中国和西太平洋海域钙质海绵的种类和生物多样性特征、生态学和生物地理学特征提供了重要基础。

 

Other Abstract

The Spongia, = Porifera, is the simplest multicellular filter-feeding animal group, with numerous small holes, through which the water flows in and out the body accompanied with a series of physiological activities such as breathing, feeding, excretion and reproduction, on its surface. The class Calcarea, includes about 700 species, only accounting for 5% of known sponge species. However, it has a wide distribution in the offshore areas, plays an important role in coastal ecosystem.

The calcareous sponge fauna is little known from China seas. Based on the sponge collections in the Marine Biological Museum of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and samples recently collected from the Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea, East and South China Seas, a taxonomic study on the Calcarea was carried out with traditional morphological method. The results show, 11 species belonging to 2 subclass, 2 orders, 7 families, 9 genera, including 3 new species and 7 new recorded species from China seas were described, illustrated, and some species were provided with in situ natural pictures and submicroscopic morphological structures; these 11 species are all different from the 9 species listed by Huang (2012) and 4 by Liu (2008) with species names, it is questionable that the species listed by Huang (2012) and Liu (2008) represent which species? If all the 9 species listed by them are really different from the 11 species described in this study, the number of known calcareous sponges from China seas will reach to 20 species; some morpholigical features used in the classification of calcareous sponges were reviewed and the important features such as aquiferous system, spicules, and skeleton, were illustrated with schematic diagram; keys to distinguished species, genera and were also provided;; the distributions in Pacific of the species were summarized and discussed; it was found that Calcarea is very common in the coastal zones in China seas, and it is a common fouling group in the aquaculture pools of sea cucumber and other culture species.

This study is the first systematically taxonomic study on Calcarea from China seas. It not only clarifies and enriches the species diversity of Calcarea, but also provides basical references for the researches of biodiversity, ecology and zoogeography of Calcarea from West Pacific Ocean.

MOST Discipline Catalogue工学::生物工程
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/164747
Collection海洋生物标本馆
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
初雁凌. 中国海钙质海绵纲(多孔动物门)的系统分类学研究[D]. 中国科学院海洋研究所. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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