IOCAS-IR
中国黄海沿岸定生石莼属(Ulva)绿藻的物种组成与分布特征
解威峰
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor姜鹏
2020-05-25
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院海洋研究所
Degree Name工程硕士
Keyword黄海,石莼属,新记录种,生物地理,绿潮
Abstract

        在全球变暖和人类活动的双重影响下,由石莼属(Ulva)绿藻引发的绿潮在全球范围内呈现明显的高发趋势,在中国沿海表现尤为明显,其中,黄海浒苔(U. prolifera)绿潮已成为常态化发生的海洋灾害,对近岸生态系统造成了显著影响。厘清定生Ulva属物种在相关海域的组成与分布特征,是开展绿潮监测与防控的重要基础。前期研究表明,黄海绿潮由单一的漂浮生态型引发,其与中国沿海广泛采集的定生群体均存在明显的遗传差异。然而,经过连续多年绿潮的冲击,大量漂浮藻体释放了大量生殖细胞,是否已对岸基定生Ulva属物种组成产生了影响?并进而提供了新的种源?目前尚缺乏全面的认识。之前的海藻调查往往基于藻体的形态特征,而石莼属绿藻可用于物种鉴定的形态特征非常有限且极不稳定。针对上述问题,本研究在黄海沿岸各种生境下广泛采集了定生石莼属绿藻,基于多标记开展了分子鉴定。针对所有新记录种,利用生物信息学方法,结合课题组多年在全国沿海的调查资料、以及NCBI已公开的所有序列信息,分析总结了所有新记录种的地理分布特征,初步探讨了其可能的扩散规律。针对个别能够形成绿潮的重要种类,开展了形态学观察与描述。主要取得以下结果:

        1)在我国黄海沿岸29个代表性站位共采集380个石莼属绿藻样本,经分子鉴定共检出15个石莼属物种,其中包括9个黄海已知种,分别为U. proliferaU. linzaU. compressaU. intestinalis,U. aragoënsisU. flexuosaU. rigidaU. australis,与U. torta。经与历史资料比对发现,冷温带种U. intestinalis已发生一定程度的北移;

        2)共鉴定出10个浒苔定生群体的91个单株,应用漂浮生态型特异的SCAR分子标记进行检测,仅检出一个阳性个体,说明漂浮生态型目前仍未在岸基大规模定生;

        3)另检出六个未定种,利用生物信息学方法,结合课题组前期在我国四大海域沿海的调查数据以及GenBank中的同源序列信息,分别鉴定为U. meridionalisU. tepidaU. chauguliiU. simplexU. partitaU. splitiana,均为中国新记录种。分析了各物种在中国和全球的分布特征,提示U. meridionalisU. chauguliiU. partitaU. splitiana可能是入侵种,发现亚热带种U. meridionalisU. tepidaU. chaugulii已在南海引发绿潮,其中,U. meridionalis已向温带区明显扩散;

        4)针对绿潮种U. meridionalis,对其形态特征、个体发育过程、生殖方式进行了详细观察与记录,发现其形态建成模式明显区别于石莼属已知的三种模式。

        本研究初步揭示了中国黄海沿岸定生石莼属绿藻的种类组成与分布特征,证实浒苔岸基定生群体对黄海绿潮没有贡献,提示生物入侵可能引发新的绿潮风险,上述认识将为中国沿海绿潮灾害的早期检测、生态风险评估与演变趋势研究提供重要资料和科学依据。

Other Abstract

    Under the dual influence of global warming and human activities, green tides caused by the green algae Ulva is obviously on the rise around the world, especially in the coastal areas of China. In the Yellow Sea of China, green tides dominated by Ulva prolifera has become a regular marine disaster, which has a significant impact on the coastal ecosystem. To efficiently monitor and forecast green tides, it is first necessary to determine the composition and distribution characteristics of the attached Ulva species in relevant waters. Previous studies have shown that the Yellow Sea green tide is caused by a unique floating ecotype, which has distinct genetic differences with all attached populations that are widely collected from the coastal areas of China. Every year, a large number of floating green algae hit the coast of the Yellow Sea, releasing abundant germ cells. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive understanding that if the species composition of the attached Ulva has changed and in turn provide new provenance for the blooms. In China, seaweed diversity, including Ulvaspecies, has been investigated mainly based on morphological features, while there are a few characters used for identification and those features could vary widely. In view of these problems, the samples of Ulva species were collected extensively in various habitats along the coast of Yellow Sea and identified by multiple molecular markers. Based on bioinformatics method, combined with the years of our research on Ulva along the coast of China and all the sequence information that are available in NCBI, the distribution characteristics of all new records were analyzed and summarized, as well as the possible dispersal patterns. Morphological observation and description of some important green-tide-forming species were performed. The main results are as follows:

    1) A total of 380 Ulva samples were collected from 29 representative sites and 15 Ulva species were identified by molecular identification, including 9 known species of the Yellow Sea: U. prolifera, U. linza, U. compressa, U. intestinalis, U. aragoënsis, U. flexuosa, U. rigida, U. australis and U. torta. By comparing with historical data, it was found that the cold temperate species U. intestinalis has shifted northward in some extent.

    2) Using the molecular marker SCAR specific to the Yellow Sea green tide floating ecotype, 91 samples isolated from 10 attached Ulva populations were analyzed and the results showed that only one individual was positive, indicating that the floating ecotype U. prolifera has not established in large numbers along the coast yet.

    3)In addition, based on bioinformatics method, combined with the years of our research on Ulva along the Chinese coast and highly similar sequences in GenBank, six Ulva sp. were respectively identified as U. meridionalis, U. tepida, U. chaugulii, U. simplex, U. partita and U. splitiana, which were all new records in China. Then the distribution characteristics of these six Ulva species in China and around the world were analyzed, suggesting that U. meridionalis, U. chaugulii, U. partita and U. splitiana may be new invaders. Furthermore, it has been found that the subtropical species U. meridionalis, U. tepida and U. chaugulii had caused green tides in the South China Sea, and U. meridionalis had spread significantly northward to the temperate zone.

  4)As for the green-tide-forming species U. meridionalis, the morphological characteristic, individual development and reproduction were observed in detail. The results showed that the morphogenetic pattern of Ulva meridionalis is significantly different from the three known ones of Ulva species.

    This research preliminarily revealed the composition and distribution characteristics of the attached Ulva species along the coast of the Yellow Sea, China, confirmed that the shore-based Ulva prolifera made no contribution to the Yellow Sea green tide, and indicated that the new green tide could be induced by bioinvasion.These research results will provide important background data and scientific basis for early monitoring, ecological effect assessment and evolution trend prediction of green tides in Chinese coast.

Language中文
Table of Contents

第1章 绪论

1.1 绿潮简介

1.2 Ulva属概况

1.2.1 Ulva属简介

1.2.2 Ulva属的物种鉴定

1.2.3 Ulva属绿藻的分子生物地理学研究

1.2.4 Ulva属物种的扩散与入侵

1.3 黄海绿潮概况

1.3.1 黄海绿潮

1.3.2 我国黄海岸基Ulva属物种的组成与分布

1.4 本研究的目的与意义

第2章 黄海Ulva属物种组成与分布

2.1 引言

2.2 实验材料

2.2.1 采样工具

2.2.2 实验室常用仪器与试剂

2.2.3 标本制作工具

2.2.4 tufA区分浒苔及其近缘种适用性评价所用样本

2.3 实验方法

2.3.1 调查站位设置与样本采集

2.3.2 样本预处理与暂养

2.3.3 分子鉴定

2.3.4 tufA区分Ulva proliferaUlva linza检验

2.3.5 形态观察与标本制作

2.4 结果

2.4.1 分子鉴定结果

2.4.2 tufA区分LPP簇物种检验结果

2.4.3 Ulva属物种形态观察

2.4.4 检出物种在黄海沿岸的分布特征

2.4.5 浒苔漂浮生态型的岸基定生检测

2.5 讨论

2.5.1 分子方法在Ulva属物种界定中的重要性

2.5.2 黄海Ulva属物种组成与变化

2.5.3 黄海Ulva属物种的分布规律

2.5.4 浒苔漂浮生态型在黄海沿岸尚未发生大规模定生

2.6 结论

第3章 Ulva属六个新记录种的鉴定

3.1 引言

3.2 材料与方法

3.2.1 仪器与试剂

3.2.2 样本的选择

3.2.3 新记录种的定种分析

3.2.4 新记录种分布特征分析

3.3 结果

3.3.1 新记录种的分子鉴定

3.3.2 新记录种在全球的分布特征

3.3.3 新记录种在中国的分布特征

3.4 讨论

3.4.1 六个新记录种的定种探讨

3.4.2 新记录种在中国的分布特征与可能的扩散机制

3.4.3 入侵和绿潮的关系

3.5 结论

第4章 Ulva meridionalis形态特征与形态建成

4.1 引言

4.2 材料与方法

4.2.1 仪器与试剂

4.2.2 样本信息

4.2.3 形态学与解剖学特征观察

4.2.4 生殖与发育模式观察

4.3 结果

4.3.1 形态学特征观察

4.3.2 解剖学特征观察

4.3.3 生殖与形态建成

4.4 讨论

4.4.1 Ulva meridionalis的形态异同比较

4.4.2 Ulva属物种的形态建成模式

4.5 结论

第5章 总结

参考文献

致 谢

作者简历及攻读学位期间发表的学术论文与研究成果

Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/164745
Collection中国科学院海洋研究所
实验海洋生物学重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
解威峰. 中国黄海沿岸定生石莼属(Ulva)绿藻的物种组成与分布特征[D]. 中国科学院海洋研究所. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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学位论文_解威峰2016E8006861(19424KB)学位论文 暂不开放CC BY-NC-SA
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