IOCAS-IR  > 海洋环流与波动重点实验室
钓鱼岛东北冷涡形成和维持机制研究
张艳胜
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor于非
2020-05-17
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院海洋研究所
Degree Name理学博士
Keyword东海 钓鱼岛 冷涡 Roms Jebar
Abstract

2001年8月调查发现在钓鱼岛东北海域存在很强的冷水涌升现象,本文根据收集的调查资料分析了该冷水涌升过程,将其命名为‘钓鱼岛东北冷涡’,并分析了其特征和季节变化规律,发现该冷涡是季节性冷涡,每年都会夏季出现。由于调查时间和空间上的局限性,本文又利用ROMS模式模拟了东海南部的水动力特征,研究了钓鱼岛东北冷涡的形成和维持机制,并分析了其与流场的关系。获得了以下几点成果。

1)钓鱼岛东北冷涡是由于底层海水涌升而形成的中尺度冷涡, 其温盐等值线上凸的趋势可以达到30m层以浅, 但并不能与海表通风。钓鱼岛东北冷涡的水平尺度在150km左右,从50m层的水文特征来看,其水团特征盐度为34.70-34.80, 比周围海域盐度高出0.5以上,特征温度低于20°C,比周围海水温度低2-3℃,冷涡区域上层为温度高于28℃的暖水,下层为温度低于20℃的冷水,最低温度在17.50℃左右,中间温跃层大约在30-50m层,厚度在20m左右,温度跨度从28℃到20℃,温度梯度最大达到0.50℃/m 不同年份冷涡强度不同,等密度面上凸程度不同,相比而言,2001年8月的钓鱼岛东北冷涡就强于2003年8月的2017年七月AUV的调查显示钓鱼岛东北冷涡更弱;然而钓鱼岛东北冷涡出现的位置却每年基本不变, 在123-124.3°E, 26-27°N范围内。对比模式结果,整个东海南部底层都被温度低于20℃的冷水占据,在(122.5°E-124°E,26.2°N-27.5°N)区域内30m层以上有半封闭的气旋式环流

2)调查资料分析发现钓鱼岛东北冷涡是季节性冷涡, 每年夏季都会出现,五六月份开始形成,月份还可以观察到该涡,此时该涡已很弱, 仅可以在近底层观察到海水涌升的迹象,十二月份的调查显示该冷涡已完全消失;八月是该冷涡强度最强的时间,对比模式结果,发现其变化规律与调查数据分析的结果基本一致;然而调查分析认为八月时钓鱼岛东北冷涡最强,不过模式结果显示七月和八月其强度差不多,随后逐渐减弱,十月时,其结构已经基本消失,十一月开始,一直到次年四月,钓鱼岛东北冷涡是完全不存在的;横穿钓鱼岛东北冷涡断面的温度分布显示,S区(123.20°-124.50°E)底层和表层温度基本呈现反位相变化,表层温度越高,则底部的冷水越强,温度越低;模式中出现的半封闭流环结构与调查认知和模式认知的钓鱼岛东北冷涡的变化规律基本一致,该结构出现于钓鱼岛东北冷涡的发展(五月和六月)和强盛(七月和八月)时期,冷涡减弱,该结构也开始衰退,半封闭的流环发展是从表层往下,其衰退也是从表层开始消失,相对其发展过程,衰退过程要迅速的多。

3)钓鱼岛东北海域的局地地形是钓鱼岛东北冷涡形成的必要条件,此处有一个深度比周围水深深40m-60m的盆地,盆地的范围大约为(123°E-124°E,26°N-27°N),与钓鱼岛东北冷涡的发生区域基本一致,地形的改变影响了底部冷水的运动,真实和加深地形之下,来自台湾东北的冷水进入到钓鱼岛东北海域盆地之中,然后在此汇聚,壮大底层冷水的势力,然后逐步向上涌升,向西扩张,最终形成钓鱼岛东北冷涡;然而地形填平之后,来自台湾东北的温度低于17℃的冷水就不能进入到钓鱼岛东北海域,虽然依旧有温度低于20℃的冷水到达钓鱼岛东北海域,但是随后又流出了该海域,并不能留存在此海域,无法向上向西壮大冷水的势力,不能形成钓鱼岛东北冷涡;钓鱼岛东北冷涡上层的气旋式半封闭的流环在改变地形之后消失了。

4)经过JEBAR项的诊断分析,基本解释了钓鱼岛东北冷涡季节变化的机制,地形不变,钓鱼岛东北冷涡的变化只能是有局地的斜压性的变化引起。从一月到八月,海洋层结性不断变强,当其达到一定程度时,诱使黑潮次表层水入侵,遭遇突然变深的地形,引起正的涡管拉伸,相对涡度增大,导致五月从表层开始出现气旋式的半封闭流环,之后半封闭的流环深度逐渐加深,底层冷水涌升也逐渐加强,钓鱼岛东北冷涡的特征结构开始出现,此时钓鱼岛东北冷涡开始显现,之后层结性进一步加强,钓鱼岛东北冷涡也逐渐变强,直到七八月,此时该冷涡达到最强,半封闭的流环所占厚度也最深,冷水涌升强度也最强,温度梯度也最大,局地的海洋层结也最强;之后,局地的层结开始减弱,表层的半封闭流环开始消失,钓鱼岛东北冷涡也开始减弱,十月时,其温度梯度(0.08℃/m)已经低于其五月开始形成时的温度梯度(0.12℃/m),半封闭的流环结构也完全消失,底层冷水涌升也变得不明显,模式显示钓鱼岛东北冷涡已基本消失。

5)钓鱼岛东北冷涡的存在有利于黑潮水和陆架水水交换。在钓鱼岛东北冷涡存在期间,平均离岸流量强于平均向岸入侵总流量。改变地形钓鱼岛东北冷涡消失之后,虽然夏季的离岸平均流量只是略微减小(之前为0.38Sv,之后为0.37Sv),而向岸入侵总流量从0.21Sv增加到了0.40Sv,离岸流量从之前远远大于向岸入侵总流量变为小于,钓鱼岛东北冷涡的消使离岸流略微减小,相对的减弱了陆架水与黑潮水水交换

6)钓鱼岛东北冷涡的底层冷水来自于黑潮次表层水,但是不同时期其来源的具体层次不同。钓鱼岛东北冷涡初始发展(五月)时,其底层冷水源自于黑潮100m左右的水层;然后底层冷水的源起层次逐渐加深,到了其强盛时期(七八月),其底层冷水源自于100m-130m左右的水层;到了其末期(九月之后),其底层冷水来自于黑潮130m-200m之间的水层;其底层冷水的最终去向是回到黑潮。

Other Abstract

The August 2001 survey found a strong upwelling process to the northeast of the Diaoyu Island,  this paper first analyzes the cold water surge process based on the collected survey data, and named it as 'the Cold Eddy to the Northeast of Diaoyu Island', and analyzed its characteristics and seasonal variation. It was found that the cold vortex is a seasonal cold eddy, which occurs every summer. Due to the limitations of investigation time and space, this paper uses the ROMS model to simulate the hydrodynamic characteristics of the southern part of the East China Sea, studies the formation and maintenance mechanism of the Cold Eddy to the Northeast of Diaoyu Island, and analyzes its relationship with the current of ECS. The following results were obtained.

(1) The Cold Eddy to the Northeast of the Diaoyu Island CENDis a mesoscale cold eddy formed by the upwelling of the bottom water. The isotherms of the temperature and salt contours protruded  can be reach 30m, but it cannot be ventilated with the  surface. The horizontal scale of CEND is about 150km. From the hydrological characteristics of the 50m layer, the salinity of the water mass is about 34.70-34.80, which is higher than the salinity of the surrounding by 0.5 or more, and the characteristic temperature is lower than 20 °C. The seawater temperature is 2-3 °C, the upper part of the cold eddy area is occupied by warm water with temperature higher than 28 °C, the lower layer is cold water with temperature lower than 20 °C, the lowest temperature is about 17.50 °C, the middle thermocline is about 30-50m layer, the thickness of  thermocline  is about 20m, with temperature decreasing from 28°C to 20°C, the temperature gradient is up to 0.50°C/m. CENDs intensity is different in different years, and the depth of isopycnal surface is different. In comparison, CEND in August 2001 is stronger than that in August 200, the obversition of AUV in July 2017 showed that  CEND is much weaker; however, the location of CEND is basically consistent every year in the range of 123.2-124.2 °E, 26-27 °N. According to ruselt of ROMS, the entire bottom layer of the eastern part of the ECS is occupied by cold water with a temperature lower than 20 °C. In the region of (122.5°E-124°E, 26.2°N-27.5°N), there is a semi-closed cyclone current over 30m layer.

(2) Analysis of the survey data found that CEND is a seasonal cold eddy, which occurs every summer and begins to form in May and June. The eddy can also be observed in October. At this time, the eddy is weak and can only be observed at the bottom. The data of Dec shows that CEND has completely disappeared. Aug is the strongest time of CEND. Compared with the results of the model, we found that the interannual variation is basically consistent with the results of observated data analysis. But the model showed that its intensity is similar in July and August, and then gradually weakened. In October, its structure has basically disappeared. From November to April, the cold vortex of the Diaoyu Islands in the next year It does not exist at all. The temperature distribution of the section that across CEND shows that the bottom layer and surface temperature of the S zone (123.20°-124.50°E) are antiphase. The semi-closed flow ring structure appearing in the model is basically consistent with the variation of CEND in which we investigate the cognition and pattern cognition. The structure appeared in the development of CEND (May and June) and the strong (July and August) period, CEND weakened, the structure also began to decline, and the semi-closed flow ring developed from the surface down. The recession also began to disappear from the surface, and the recession process was much faster than its development.

(3) The existence of specific topography in the northeastern of Diaoyu Island is a necessary condition for CEND, here has a basin that 40m-60m deeper than surroundings, the scope of the basin is about 123 ° E - 124 ° E, 26 ° N - 27 ° N, same with the CEND occurrence area. The topography changes affect the movement of the bottom cold water. In the real and deepen topography, the cold water from northeastern Taiwan entered the basin of the northeastern Diaoyu Islands, where it then gathered to strengthen the forces of the cold water at the bottom, and then gradually surged upwards and expanded westward, eventually forming the CEND. However, after the topographical change, cold water from the northeastern Taiwan with a temperature lower than 17 °C cannot enter the northeastern part of the Diaoyu Islands. Although cold water with a temperature lower than 20 °C still reaches the northeastern part of the Diaoyu Islands, it then flows out of the sea and cannot be retained. In this area, it is impossible to expand the cold water to the west and cannot form the CEND. The cold water area at the bottom of the section aross CEND is reduced, and the cold water range of 17 °C in the S area is significantly reduced; the cyclonic semi-closed flow ring in the upper layer of CEND disappears after changing the topography.

(4) Through the diagnostic analysis of JEBAR term, the seasonal variation mechanism of CEND is basically explained. The topography is basically consistent, and the change of CEND can only be caused by the change of local baroclinity. From January to August. The ocean Stratification is becoming stronger and stronger, when it reaches a certain level, causing the Kuroshio Subsurface Water (KSSW) intrusion, the KSSW encounters the topography that deepens sharply, This local topography causes the intruded water to be subjected to positive vortex-tube stretching, giving rise to cyclonic semi-closed current and upwellings in May, after that, the depth of the semi-closed flow ring gradually deepens, and the cold water of the bottom  gradually strengthens, the characteristic structure of CEND begins to appear, the CEND began to emerge, after stratification to further strengthen, the CEND also gradually became stronger until July and August, when CEND reached its strongest, the thickness of the semi-closed current was also the deepest, the cold water upwelling intensity was the strongest, the temperature gradient was the largest, and the local ocean stratification was the strongest. Then, the localized stratification weakened, and the semi-closed flow ring of the surface layer began to disappear, the CEND  also began weakened, in October, the temperature gradient (0.08 °C / m) has been lower than the temperature gradient (0.12 ° C / m) when it began to form in May, the semi-closed circulation loop structure also disappeared completely, the bottom cold water surge also disappeared, the model ruselts show that the CEND has basically disappeared.

(5) The existence of CEND is conducive to water exchange between Kuroshio and continental shelf. During the existence of CEND, the average offshore flow was much stronger than the average total inflow to the shore. the CEND disappears after changing topography, while the summer offshore average flow slightly reduced (before 0.38 Sv, after 0.37 Sv), The total inflow of intrusion also increased from 0.21Sv to 0.40Sv. The offshore flow changes from much larger than the total inflow intrusion to less than that. The disappearance of CEND relatively reduced the exchange between Kuroshio and continental shelf. 

(6) The bottom water of CEND comes from the subsurface water of Kuroshio, but the specific level of its source is different in different periods. At the initial development of CEND (May), the bottom water originated from the 100m of Kuroshio; then the source of the bottom water  gradually deepened, and in CENDs strong period (July and August), the bottom water originated from In the water layer of about 100m-130m; at the ending of CEND (after September), the bottom water comes from the water of 130m-200m layer; the final destination of the bottom water is back to the Kuroshio.

MOST Discipline Catalogue理学::海洋科学
Language中文
Table of Contents

 

目录 I

1 绪论 1

1.1 研究背景及意义 1

1.2 研究进展与科学问题 3

1.2.1 黑潮与陆架水水交换 3

1.2.2 东海涡旋研究 6

1.3 科学问题 6

2 研究方法及数据资料 9

2.1 ROMS模式介绍 9

2.1.1 控制方程及边界条件 9

2.1.2 S坐标系 11

2.1.3 湍流闭合模式 13

2.2 模式设置及数据资料介绍 14

2.2.1 模式设置 14

2.2.2 WOA09数据资料 16

2.2.3 COADS气候态数据资料 16

2.2.4 HYCOM\NCODA再分析资料 19

2.2.5 实测资料 23

3 钓鱼岛东北冷涡三维特征及演变规律 27

3.1 钓鱼岛东北冷涡特征 27

3.1.1 调查结果分析 27

3.1.2 模式结果分析 35

3.2 钓鱼岛东北冷涡生长消亡规律 39

3.2.1 调查结果分析 40

3.2.2 模式结果分析 47

3.3 小结 56

4 钓鱼岛东北冷涡形成和演变机制 59

4.1 地形实验 59

4.2 地形和斜压联合效应(JEBAR)分析 70

4.3 小结 73

5 钓鱼岛东北冷涡和黑潮陆架水水交换关系 75

5.1 流量分析 75

5.2 Lagrange粒子轨迹实验 85

5.3 小结 90

6 结论与展望 92

6.1 创新成果和主要结论 92

6.2 工作展望 95

参考文献 96

致谢 101

 

Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/164674
Collection海洋环流与波动重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张艳胜. 钓鱼岛东北冷涡形成和维持机制研究[D]. 中国科学院海洋研究所. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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