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Effects of a Sudden Drop in Salinity on Immune Response Mechanisms of Anadara kagoshimensis
Zhang, Mo1; Li, Li2; Liu, Ying1,3; Gao, Xiaolong4
Corresponding AuthorGao, Xiaolong(
AbstractIn this experiment, the effects of a sudden drop of salinity on the immune response mechanisms of the ark shell Anadara kagoshimensis were examined by simulating the sudden drop of salinity that occurs in seawater after a rainstorm. Additionally, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using transcriptome sequencing. When the salinity dropped from 30 parts per thousand (S30) to 14 parts per thousand (S14), the phagocytic activity of blood lymphocytes, the O-2(-) levels produced from respiratory burst, the content of reactive oxygen species, and the activities of lysozymes and acid phosphatases increased significantly, whereas the total count of blood lymphocytes did not increase. Total count of blood lymphocytes in 22 parts per thousand salinity (S22) was significantly higher than that in any other group. The raw data obtained from sequencing were processed with Trimmomatic (Version 0.36). The expression levels of unigenes were calculated using transcripts per million (TPM) based on the effects of sequencing depth, gene length, and sample on reads. Differential expression analysis was performed using DESeq (Version 1.12.4). Transcriptome sequencing revealed 269 (101 up-regulated, 168 down-regulated), 326 (246 up-regulated, 80 down-regulated), and 185 (132 up-regulated, 53 down-regulated) significant DEGs from comparison of the S14 vs. S22, S22 vs. S30, and S14 vs. S30 groups, respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the DEGs in these salinity comparison groups revealed that the cellular amino acid metabolic process, the regulation of protein processing, the regulation of response to stress, and other terms were significantly enriched. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis showed that nucleotide-binding, oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor signaling pathway (ko04621), apoptosis-multiple species (ko04215), Toll and Imd signaling pathway (ko04624), NF-kappa B signaling pathway (ko04064), apoptosis (ko04210), and focal adhesion (ko04510) were significantly enriched in all salinity comparison groups. qRT-PCR verification of 12 DEGs in the above six pathways was conducted, and the results were consistent with the transcriptome sequencing results in terms of up-regulation and down-regulation, which illustrates that the transcriptome sequencing data are credible. These results were used to preliminarily explore the effects of a sudden drop of salinity on blood physiological and biochemical indexes and immunoregulatory mechanisms of A.kagoshimensis. They also provide a theoretical basis for the selection of bottom areas optimal for release and proliferation of A.kagoshimensis required to restore the declining populations of this species.
KeywordAnadara kagoshimensis salinity transcriptomics cellular immunity real-time quantitative PCR
Indexed BySCI
Funding ProjectChina Postdoctoral Science Foundation[2019M650153] ; Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System in Shandong Province[SDAIT-14-04] ; State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science at Xiamen University
WOS Research AreaBiochemistry & Molecular Biology ; Chemistry
WOS SubjectBiochemistry & Molecular Biology ; Chemistry, Multidisciplinary
WOS IDWOS:000489100500044
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Cited Times:3[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorGao, Xiaolong
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Oceanol, Key Lab Expt Marine Biol, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, Peoples R China
2.Marine Biol Inst Shandong Prov, Qingdao 266104, Shandong, Peoples R China
3.Dalian Ocean Univ, Coll Marine Technol & Environm, Dalian 116023, Peoples R China
4.Xiamen Univ, Coll Ocean & Earth Sci, State Key Lab Marine Environm Sci, Xiamen 361102, Fujian, Peoples R China
First Author AffilicationInstitute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Zhang, Mo,Li, Li,Liu, Ying,et al. Effects of a Sudden Drop in Salinity on Immune Response Mechanisms of Anadara kagoshimensis[J]. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES,2019,20(18):21.
APA Zhang, Mo,Li, Li,Liu, Ying,&Gao, Xiaolong.(2019).Effects of a Sudden Drop in Salinity on Immune Response Mechanisms of Anadara kagoshimensis.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES,20(18),21.
MLA Zhang, Mo,et al."Effects of a Sudden Drop in Salinity on Immune Response Mechanisms of Anadara kagoshimensis".INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES 20.18(2019):21.
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