Global Observing Needs in the Deep Ocean
Levin, Lisa A.1,2; Bett, Brian J.3; Gates, Andrew R.3; Heimbach, Patrick4; Howe, Bruce M.5; Janssen, Felix6; McCurdy, Andrea7; Ruhl, Henry A.3,8; Snelgrove, Paul9,10; Stocks, Karen, I11; Bailey, David12; Baumann-Pickering, Simone1,2,13; Beaverson, Chris14; Benfield, Mark C.15; Booth, David J.16; Carreiro-Silva, Marina17; Colaco, Ana17; Eble, Marie C.18; Fowler, Ashley M.16,19; Gjerde, Kristina M.20; Jones, Daniel O. B.3; Katsumata, K.21; Kelley, Deborah22; Le Bris, Nadine23; Leonardi, Alan P.14; Lejzerowicz, Franck24; Macreadie, Peter, I25; McLean, Dianne26; Meitz, Fred; Morato, Telmo17; Netburn, Amanda14; Pawlowski, Jan27; Smith, Craig R.28; Sun, Song29; Uchida, Hiroshi21; Vardaro, Michael F.22; Venkatesan, R.30; Weller, Robert A.31
Corresponding AuthorLevin, Lisa A.(
AbstractThe deep ocean below 200 m water depth is the least observed, but largest habitat on our planet by volume and area. Over 150 years of exploration has revealed that this dynamic system provides critical climate regulation, houses a wealth of energy, mineral, and biological resources, and represents a vast repository of biological diversity. A long history of deep-ocean exploration and observation led to the initial concept for the Deep-Ocean Observing Strategy (DOOS), under the auspices of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Here we discuss the scientific need for globally integrated deep-ocean observing, its status, and the key scientific questions and societal mandates driving observing requirements over the next decade. We consider the Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) needed to address deep-ocean challenges within the physical, biogeochemical, and biological/ecosystem sciences according to the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), and map these onto scientific questions. Opportunities for new and expanded synergies among deep-ocean stakeholders are discussed, including academic-industry partnerships with the oil and gas, mining, cable and fishing industries, the ocean exploration and mapping community, and biodiversity conservation initiatives. Future deep-ocean observing will benefit from the greater integration across traditional disciplines and sectors, achieved through demonstration projects and facilitated reuse and repurposing of existing deep-sea data efforts. We highlight examples of existing and emerging deep-sea methods and technologies, noting key challenges associated with data volume, preservation, standardization, and accessibility. Emerging technologies relevant to deep-ocean sustainability and the blue economy include novel genomics approaches, imaging technologies, and ultra-deep hydrographic measurements. Capacity building will be necessary to integrate capabilities into programs and projects at a global scale. Progress can be facilitated by Open Science and Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable (FAIR) data principles and converge on agreed to data standards, practices, vocabularies, and registries. We envision expansion of the deep-ocean observing community to embrace the participation of academia, industry, NGOs, national governments, international governmental organizations, and the public at large in order to unlock critical knowledge contained in the deep ocean over coming decades, and to realize the mutual benefits of thoughtful deep-ocean observing for all elements of a sustainable ocean.
Keyworddeep sea ocean observation blue economy essential ocean variables biodiversity ocean sensors
Indexed BySCI
Funding ProjectConsortium for Ocean Leadership[NNX16AJ87A] ; Consortium for Ocean Leadership[SA16-33] ; FCT-Investigador contract[IF/00029/2014/CP1230/CT0002] ; NASA subaward from the Consortium for Ocean Leadership ; Horizon 2020, EU Project EMSO Link[731036] ; UK Natural Environment Research Council Climate Linked Atlantic Section Science project[NE/R015953/1] ; Swiss Network for International Studies ; Swiss National Science Foundation[31003A_179125] ; FCT[IF/01194/2013] ; IFCT Exploratory Project[IF/01194/2013/CP1199/CT0002] ; H2020 Atlas project[GA 678760] ; H2020 MERCES project[GA 689518]
WOS Research AreaEnvironmental Sciences & Ecology ; Marine & Freshwater Biology
WOS SubjectEnvironmental Sciences ; Marine & Freshwater Biology
WOS IDWOS:000469301800001
Citation statistics
Cited Times:29[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorLevin, Lisa A.
Affiliation1.Univ Calif San Diego, Integrat Oceanog Div, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA
2.Univ Calif San Diego, Ctr Marine Biodivers & Conservat, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA
3.Natl Oceanog Ctr, Ocean Biogeochem & Ecosyst Div, Southampton, Hants, England
4.Univ Texas Austin, Oden Inst Computat Engn & Sci, Inst Geophys, Austin, TX 78712 USA
5.Univ Hawaii Manoa, Dept Ocean & Resources Engn, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA
6.Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Deep Sea Ecol & Technol Grp, Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany
7.Univ Corp Atmospher Res, Cooperat Programs Adv Earth Syst Sci, Boulder, CO USA
8.Monterey Bay Aquarium Res Inst, Moss Landing, CA USA
9.Mem Univ Newfoundland, Dept Ocean Sci, St John, NF, Canada
10.Mem Univ Newfoundland, Dept Biol, St John, NF, Canada
11.Univ Calif San Diego, Geol Data Ctr, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA
12.Univ Glasgow, Inst Biodivers Anim Hlth & Comparat Med, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland
13.Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, Marine Phys Lab, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA
14.NOAA, Off Ocean Explorat & Res, Silver Spring, MD USA
15.Louisiana State Univ, Dept Oceanog & Coastal Sci, Coll Coast & Environm, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA
16.Univ Technol Sydney, Sch Life Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia
17.Univ Acores, Inst Mar, Marine & Environm Sci Ctr, Ctr OKEANOS, Horta, Portugal
18.NOAA, Pacific Marine Environm Lab, 7600 Sand Point Way Ne, Seattle, WA 98115 USA
19.Sydney Inst Marine Sci, New South Wales Dept Primary Ind, Mosman, NSW, Australia
20.Middlebury Inst Int Studies Monterey, IUCN Global Marine & Polar Programme, Monterey, CA USA
21.Japan Agcy Marine Earth Sci & Technol, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
22.Univ Washington, Sch Oceanog, Seattle, WA 98195 USA
23.Sorbonne Univ, Observ Oceanol Banyuls, CNRS, Banyuls Sur Mer, France
24.Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Pediat, San Diego, CA 92103 USA
25.Deakin Univ, Ctr Integrat Ecol, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Burwood, Vic, Australia
26.Australian Inst Marine Sci, Indian Ocean Marine Res Ctr, Crawley, WA, Australia
27.Univ Geneva, Dept Genet & Evolut, Geneva, Switzerland
28.Univ Hawaii, Sch Ocean & Earth Sci & Technol, Dept Oceanog, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA
29.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Oceanol, Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples R China
30.Natl Inst Ocean Technol, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
31.Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Levin, Lisa A.,Bett, Brian J.,Gates, Andrew R.,et al. Global Observing Needs in the Deep Ocean[J]. FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE,2019,6:32.
APA Levin, Lisa A..,Bett, Brian J..,Gates, Andrew R..,Heimbach, Patrick.,Howe, Bruce M..,...&Weller, Robert A..(2019).Global Observing Needs in the Deep Ocean.FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE,6,32.
MLA Levin, Lisa A.,et al."Global Observing Needs in the Deep Ocean".FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE 6(2019):32.
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