IOCAS-IR
超声改性方法对粘土除藻效率的影响及其机制研究
姜文彬
第一作者单位中国科学院海洋研究所
学位类型硕士
导师俞志明
2018-05-11
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点中国科学院海洋研究所
学位名称工程硕士
学位专业环境工程
关键词超声方法 改性粘土 有害藻华 治理效率
摘要

近年来,有害藻华频繁发生,对近海生态环境、渔业、养殖业和旅游景观均造成严重影响,已成为世界性海洋生态灾害。改性粘土法是有害藻华应急处置的有效手段,本文在他人对改性粘土的研究基础上,采用超声方法处理粘土,用以进一步提高粘土对藻细胞的絮凝效率,减小粘土用量,并探讨超声粘土的除藻机制,为如何进一步提高粘土的去除能力提供参考。主要结果如下:

1)将不同超声处理条件下粘土除藻效率比较分析,发现超声处理可以有效提高粘土的除藻效率,超声处理效果受超声时间与超声功率变化的影响。超声处理后,不同粘土的去除率提升幅度存在差异,以东海原甲藻为实验生物时,膨润土去除率提升最明显,蒙脱土次之,高岭土再次之,PAC-MCAC-MC提升幅度最低。相比于未改性粘土,改性粘土去除率提升幅度较低,主要是因为改性粘土去除率已达到较高水平。实验设计时间范围内,超声处理时间越长,粘土除藻效率越高,超声处理时间可设为15 min-20 min。超声功率增强,粘土去除率变化程度较小,超声处理功率可设置为360 W

2)将不同超声处理条件下粘土颗粒性质比较分析,发现超声处理导致粘土颗粒粒径减小,并使粘土颗粒更加均匀,颗粒粒径变化程度受超声时间与超声功率影响。由于不同粘土材质和粒径大小不同,超声处理后不同粘土粒径变化也不同。超声处理对粘土的沉降速率具有显著影响,超声处理后高岭土、PAC-MCAC-MC沉降速率降低,超声蒙脱土沉降速率先升高后降低,超声膨润土沉降速率显著升高。超声处理可改变粘土Zeta 电位,电位变化受到多种因素的影响,如粘土种类、溶液中的离子类别和浓度、粘土是否改性等因素。超声处理对粘土悬浮液的pH存在影响,pH变化同样上述因素的影响。

3)将粘土除藻效率与颗粒性质进行相关分析,发现超声处理后粘土颗粒粒径减小是粘土去除率提高的主要原因,超声处理引起的pH与电位变化对粘土去除率影响较小。超声处理时间越长,改性效果越明显的现象在五种粘土中均有一定程度体现,超声时间与颗粒粒径、沉降速率等颗粒性质指标大都为线性关系。

其他摘要

In recent years, harmful algal blooms have occurred frequently and have caused serious damage to the coastal ecosystem, fisheries, aquaculture, and the landscape. It has become a worldwide maritime disaster. The modified clay method is an effective method for the emergency treatment of harmful algal blooms. Based on the previous researches on modified clays, the ultrasound was used to modify the clay, to further increase the flocculation efficiency of clay on algal cells and reduce the amount of clay. We explored the algae removal mechanism of ultrasonic modified clay, which provided a reference for further enhancing the removal ability of clay. The main results are as follows

1Analyzing the algal removal efficiency of clay under different ultrasonic conditions, we found that ultrasonic treatment can effectively improve the removal efficiency of clay, and the effect of ultrasonic treatment is affected by the change of ultrasonic time and ultrasonic power. The increase range of different clays was different. When the Prorocentrum donghaiense was used as the experimental organism, the removal efficiency of bentonite was the most obvious, followed by montmorillonite, followed by kaolin, the PAC-MC and AC-MC had the lowest increase. The magnitude of modified clay is lower than that of the clay, mainly because the removal efficiency of modified clay has reached a relatively high level. In our experiment time, the longer the ultrasonic treatment time is, the better the modification effect is, and the ultrasonic treatment time can be set to 15 min-20 min. With the increase of ultrasonic power, the removal rate generally shows a trend of rising first and then decreasing. The ultrasonic treatment power can be set to 360 W.

(2) Analyzing the particle properties of clay under different ultrasonic conditions, we found that ultrasonic treatment can reduce the particle size of the clay and make the clay particles more uniform. The degree of particle size change is affected by the ultrasonic time and ultrasonic power. Different clays have different particle size changes after ultrasonic treatment, which is caused by different clay materials and different particle sizes. Ultrasonic treatment has a significant effect on the sedimentation rate of clay. The sedimentation rate of ultrasonic kaolin, PAC-MC and AC-MC decreased, the sedimentation rate of ultrasonic montmorillonite increased first and then decreased, and the sedimentation rate of ultrasonic bentonite significantly increased. Ultrasonic treatment can lead to changes in clay surface potential, but its effect is affected by many factors, such as the type of clay, the type and concentration of ions in the solution and whether the clay is modified. Ultrasonic treatment also affects the pH of the clay suspension, and changes in pH are also affected by the above factors.

(3) Analyzing the correlation between the removal efficiency of algae and the particles properties of the clay, we found that the increase of clay removal efficiency after ultrasonic treatment is mainly affected by the decrease of clay particle size. Ultrasonic treatment can affect the Zeta potential and pH of clay suspensions, which may not have a positive effect on clay removal efficiency. The longer the ultrasonic treatment time is, the more obvious the effect of modification on the five clays are. In general, ultrasonic time is linear with particle size, sedimentation rate and other particle properties.

学科领域有害藻华防治与控制
学科门类工学::环境科学与工程(可授工学、理学、农学学位)
目录

....................................................................................................... I

ABSTRACT......................................................................................... Ⅲ

第一章  绪论......................................................................................... 1

1.1  有害藻华概述.................................................................................................. 1

1.1.1  有害藻华的成因....................................................................................... 1

1.1.2  有害藻华的危害....................................................................................... 1

1.1.3  有害藻华防治方法................................................................................... 2

1.2  改性粘土治理方法.......................................................................................... 5

1.2.1  改性粘土理论与模型............................................................................... 5

1.2.2  影响除藻效率的因素............................................................................... 6

1.3  超声技术概述.................................................................................................. 8

1.3.1  超声应用领域........................................................................................... 9

1.3.2  超声处理特点......................................................................................... 11

1.4  本文的研究目标和内容................................................................................ 12

第二章 超声处理对未改性粘土除藻效率的影响............................... 15

2.1  前言................................................................................................................ 15

2.2  实验材料与方法............................................................................................ 16

2.2.1  实验材料................................................................................................. 16

2.2.2  实验方法................................................................................................. 18

2.3  结果与讨论.................................................................................................... 19

2.3.1  超声处理粘土除藻效率随时间变化关系............................................. 19

2.3.2  超声处理条件变化对粘土除藻效率的影响......................................... 20

2.3.3  超声粘土对不同藻华生物的除藻效率................................................. 22

2.3.4  分散介质变化对超声处理效果的影响................................................. 23

2.3.5  超声粘土干燥后除藻效率变化............................................................. 24

2.4  小结................................................................................................................ 25

第三章 超声处理对改性粘土除藻效率的影响.................................. 27

3.1  前言................................................................................................................ 27

3.2  实验材料与方法............................................................................................ 27

3.1.1  实验材料................................................................................................. 27

3.1.2  实验方法................................................................................................. 28

3.2  结果与讨论.................................................................................................... 29

3.2.1  超声处理后改性粘土除藻效率随时间变化关系................................. 29

3.2.2  超声处理条件变化对改性粘土除藻效率的影响................................. 30

3.2.3  超声处理后改性粘土对不同藻华生物的除藻效率............................. 32

3.3  小结................................................................................................................ 35

第四章 超声处理对粘土颗粒性质的影响.......................................... 37

4.1  前言................................................................................................................ 37

4.2  实验材料与方法............................................................................................ 37

4.2.1  实验材料................................................................................................. 37

4.2.2  实验方法................................................................................................. 38

4.3  结果与讨论.................................................................................................... 39

4.3.1  超声处理对粘土颗粒粒径的影响......................................................... 39

4.3.2  超声处理对粘土Zeta电位和pH的影响............................................. 43

4.3.3  超声处理对粘土沉降速率的影响......................................................... 46

4.4  超声处理粘土除藻机制分析........................................................................ 50

4.4.1  粘土除藻效率与其他因素相关性分析结果......................................... 50

4.4.2  超声处理粘土除藻机制分析................................................................. 53

4.4.3  其他因素的相关关系............................................................................. 54

4.5  小结................................................................................................................ 55

第五章 总结与展望............................................................................. 57

5.1  结论................................................................................................................ 57

5.2  不足与展望.................................................................................................... 58

参考文献..................................................................................................................... 59

致谢............................................................................................................................. 67

作者简历及攻读学位期间发表的学术论文与研究成果......................................... 69

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/154436
专题中国科学院海洋研究所
推荐引用方式
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姜文彬. 超声改性方法对粘土除藻效率的影响及其机制研究[D]. 中国科学院海洋研究所. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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