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Effects of dietary ascorbic acid levels on the growth, energy budget, and immunological performance of green, white, and purple color morphs of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus
Bai, Yucen1,2; Zhang, Libin1; Xia, Sudong3; Liu, Shilin1; Ru, Xiaoshang1; Xu, Qinzeng1; Zhang, Tao1; Yang, Hongsheng1
2017-04-01
Source PublicationANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Volume226Pages:1-11
SubtypeArticle
AbstractAscorbic acid plays an important role in the growth and immunity of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, a valuable commercial species in China, South Korea, and Japan. In this study, we investigated the dietary ascorbic acid requirements of two newly discovered color morphs of A. japonicus, white and purple, and compared them with that of the common green morph. Six test diets were formulated containing 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg ascorbic acid equivalent per kg, as 1-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate. The color morphs were fed the test diets for 60 days, and their growth, energy budget, and immunological performance recorded. Dietary ascorbic acid levels had a significant effect on the growth of A. japonicus (P < 0.001). The green and purple morphs showed the greatest specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), and food conversion efficiency (FCE) at a dietary ascorbic acid level of 200 mg/kg, while maximum values for the white morph were recorded at 100 mg/kg, indicating a lower ascorbic acid requirement in the white morph than the green and purple morphs. This could be due to the lower growth and metabolic rates recorded in the white morph, whose SGR, IR, and FCE values and immune indicators were lower than the green and the purple morphs. Malonaldehyde (MDA) content of the coelomic fluid was significantly lower when dietary ascorbic acid was >= 200 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) were generally higher at dietary ascorbic acid levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg compared with the other treatments. SOD and CAT activities and T-AOC were significantly and positively correlated with SGR, indicating that supplementary dietary ascorbic acid had a beneficial effect on growth and immunity. SGR, energy intake, and the proportion of energy allocated to growth decreased significantly in the white and purple morphs when ascorbic acid levels reached 800 mg/kg (P < 0.05); as did those of the green morph, but not to a significant level. Immune indicators decreased and MDA content increased slightly at 800 mg/kg, indicating that high levels of dietary ascorbic acid do not benefit growth or immunity. The SOD and CAT activities were higher in the purple morph than the green and white morphs, indicatingits superior immune system capacity. Optimum growth and immunity of A. japonicus were achieved at similar to 100 mg/kg of ascorbic acid in the white morph and 200 mg/kg in the green and purple morphs.
KeywordApostichopus Japonicus Color Morph Ascorbic Acid Requirement Energy Budget Immunology
DOI10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.006
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
WOS IDWOS:000400262700001
Citation statistics
Cited Times:3[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Version出版稿
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/137059
Collection海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Oceanol, Key Lab Marine Ecol & Environm Sci, 7 Nanhai Rd, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, Peoples R China
2.China Rural Technol Dev Ctr, 54 Sanlihe Rd, Beijing 100045, Peoples R China
3.Tianjin Fisheries Res Inst, 442 South Jiefang Rd, Tianjin 300221, Peoples R China
First Author AffilicationInstitute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Bai, Yucen,Zhang, Libin,Xia, Sudong,et al. Effects of dietary ascorbic acid levels on the growth, energy budget, and immunological performance of green, white, and purple color morphs of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus[J]. ANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY,2017,226:1-11.
APA Bai, Yucen.,Zhang, Libin.,Xia, Sudong.,Liu, Shilin.,Ru, Xiaoshang.,...&Yang, Hongsheng.(2017).Effects of dietary ascorbic acid levels on the growth, energy budget, and immunological performance of green, white, and purple color morphs of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.ANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY,226,1-11.
MLA Bai, Yucen,et al."Effects of dietary ascorbic acid levels on the growth, energy budget, and immunological performance of green, white, and purple color morphs of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus".ANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 226(2017):1-11.
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