微塑料在黄东海的分布及其在浮游动物体内累积的研究
其他题名Distribution of Microplastics and its Accumulation in Zooplankton in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea
刘涛
学位类型硕士
导师孙晓霞 研究员
2017-05-24
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生物工程
关键词微塑料 浮游动物 环境污染 生态安全 空间分布 黄东海
其他摘要
微塑料是指海洋环境中存在的尺寸在1μm到5mm之间的塑料碎屑。近年来,海洋环境中的微塑料污染问题受到了越来越广泛的关注。已有研究表明,微塑料在典型的海洋环境中已经无处不在,中国近海是中国排放的塑料废弃物进入海洋环境的主要区域,然而对于黄海和东海中微塑料的污染状况仍然知之甚少;另一方面,已有研究表明微塑料会进入海洋食物链,对海洋动物造成不同程度的影响,其中,浮游动物作为海洋食物链中物质和能量从初级生产者向高营养级传递的枢纽,是海洋生态系统中必不可少的组成部分,微塑料对其造成的影响必然间接地影响海洋食物链和海洋生态系统。
本文利用采集自黄海和东海表层水体中的样品,研究和推算:黄海和东海表层水体中微塑料的分布密度和组成特征;微塑料在常见的浮游动物体内累积的情况;浮游动物体内微塑料的丰度和组成特征。
结果表明:黄东海表层水体中广泛分布有塑料碎屑,其中大部分属于微塑料。在东海,微塑料的分布密度在0.011--2.198pieces/m³ 之间,平均分布密度是0.310pieces/m³;塑料的长度范围在178.6--21936.46μm之间,其中有88.58%的塑料长度范围在500--5000μm之间;主要形态是泡沫状(68.39%)和块状(15.02%),主要的颜色是白色(71.99%)和彩色(18.47%);主要的化学组成是聚乙烯(45.45%)、聚丙烯(34.55%)、聚苯乙烯(5.45%)。在黄海,微塑料的分布浓度在0.019--20.482pieces/m³之间,平均分布密度为0.533pieces/m³,但若不考虑个别特殊站位,黄海的平均分布密度为0.134pieces/m³;塑料的长度范围在353.37--44993.57μm之间,其中500--5000μm的塑料占80.83%;主要的形态是块状(80.22%)、薄膜状(5.54%)、纤维状(9.54%)和泡沫状(4.70%);主要颜色是透明(包括半透明)(83.69%)、白色(8.33%)和彩色(7.11%);主要的化学组分是聚乙烯(55.93%)、聚丙烯(32.20%)和聚苯乙烯(6.78%)等。
黄东海浮游动物体内普遍含有微塑料,通常端足类(Amphipoda)、枝角类(Cladocera),其对微塑料的平均接触机率较低,而箭虫(Chaetognatha)、水母(Medusa),磷虾(Euphausiacea)、莹虾(Luciferida)、海樽(Thaliacea)等对微塑料的接触机率较高。在东海,大部分浮游动物对微塑料的平均接触机率多在15%--40%之间;在黄海,浮游动物对微塑料的平均接触机率多在5%--30%之间。
在东海,主要的五种浮游动物体内微塑料的丰度分别是:桡足类在0.11—80.63 pieces/m³之间,平均为8.34 pieces/m³;水母在0.01--187.91pieces/m³之间,平均为22.17 pieces/m³;箭虫体内在0.03--9.57pieces/m³之间,平均为2.10 pieces/m³;磷虾在0.02--18.14 pieces/m³之间,平均为2.16 pieces/m³;莹虾在0.16--11.01 pieces/m³之间,平均为2.30 pieces/m³。而黄海主要的四种浮游动物体内微塑料丰度则分别是:桡足类在0.01--22.63 pieces/m³之间,平均丰度为3.85 pieces/m³;磷虾在0.05--22.63 pieces/m³之间,平均为3.43 pieces/m³;箭虫在0.08--9.93 pieces/m³之间,平均为2.06 pieces/m³;管水母在0.19--59.31 pieces/m³之间,平均为11.26 pieces/m³。
浮游动物体内一般纤维状微塑料占主要部分,东海浮游动物中不同类群体内纤维状微塑料的长度在18.12--3762.88μm之间,平均长度为291.08μm;黄海浮游动物体内纤维状微塑料长度在10.25--996.75μm之间,平均长度为258.99μm。东海浮游动物体内微塑料的化学组分主要是聚合有机氧化物(35.90%),聚酯纤维(25.64%);黄海浮游动物体内微塑料的主要的化学成分则是聚合有机氧化物(21.88%)、聚辛烯(21.88%)。
本文主要的结论是:(1)黄东海的表层水体中普遍存在微塑料,沿海大城市的近岸海域和黄东海中部海域微塑料分布密度较高。除个别区域外,总体上东海表层水体中的微塑料的平均分布密度要高于黄海,表明东海微塑料污染程度比黄海严重;(2)与世界上其他区域比较,黄东海微塑料的分布密度处于中等水平,但是和国内其他的报道相比较,东海表层水体中微塑料的分布密度有增加的现象;(3)在黄东海生活的浮游动物体内普遍存在微塑料,表明在自然状态下,浮游动物对微塑料的摄食现象普遍存在;(4)浮游动物体内的微塑料,或直接从环境中摄食的,或是它们捕食其他体内已经存在微塑料的生物体,消化以后留在了它们的体内,这表明微塑料会在海洋食物链中传递,对海洋生物群落和海洋生态系统具有潜在的影响;(5)浮游动物体内的微塑料,纤维状微塑料一般都占主要的部分,可能是水体中纤维状塑料较多,浮游动物容易摄食,并且纤维状微塑料进入浮游动物体内后较难再排出;(6)浮游动物体内微塑料的丰度明显高于水体中的丰度,处于较高营养级的浮游动物体内微塑料相对更多,这表明浮游动物对微塑料有富集的现象。
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Microplastics(MPs)is used to describe the marine debris that are composed of plastics and have the size range from 1μm to 5mm, and MPs pollution in marine environment is an issue of global concern in recent years. Previous studies have shown MPs has been ubiquitous in the marine environment. China's coastal waters are the main areas of plastic waste discharged into the marine environment, but it is still poorly understood of the pollution status of MPs in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Moreover, it has been shown that MPs will enter the marine food chain, and influence on marine animals to varying degrees. It is generally known that zooplankton is an indispensable part in the marine ecosystem as hub of material and energy cycle from primary production to higher trophic level in marine food chain, the effect of MPs on the zooplankton will inevitable indirectly affect the marine food chain and marine ecosystems. This study assesses density, type, and temporal trends of MPs in surface waters and abundance and composition of MPs in zooplankton in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea.
The results show that the plastic debris is widely distributed in the surface waters of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and most of them are MPs. In the East China Sea, the concentration of MPs is between 0.011 to 2.198 pieces/m³ and the average is 0.310 pieces/m³.The size of plastic debris are in the range between 178.6 --21936.46μm, which the 88.58% of plastics in the range of 500--5000μm. The main form of MPs are foam(68.39%) and fragments(15.02%).The common color of MPs are white(71.99%) and colorized(18.47%).The common chemical composition of MPs are 45.45% Polyethylene,34.55% Polypropylene and 5.45% Polystyrene.In the Yellow Sea, the concentration of MPs between 0.019 pieces/m³ to20.482 pieces/m³ and the average is 0.533 pieces/m³, However, without a few exceptions, the concentration of MPs in the Yellow Sea is just 0.134 pieces/m³.The size of plastic debris are in the range between 353.37---44993.57μm,which the 80.83% of plastics in the range of 500--5000μm. The main form of MPs are fragments (80.22%), film (5.54%), fibrous (9.54%) and foam (4.70%). The common color are transparent (including translucent) 83.69%, white (8.33%) and colorized (7.11%). The common chemical compositions are Polyethylene (55.93%), Polypropylene (32.20%) and Polystyrene (6.78%).
In the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, MPs are ubiquitous in vivo of zooplankton. Usually, Amphipoda and Cladocera have the low average encounter rates. On the contrary, the other zooplankton has higher average encounter rates, such as Chaetognatha, Medusa, Euphausiacea, Luciferida and Thaliacea. In the East China Sea, the average encounter rates of the majority zooplankton is 15%--40%, but 5%--30% in the Yellow Sea.
 In the East China Sea, the abundance of MPs in common zooplankton taxon are: 0.11-- 80.63 pieces/m³ in Copepod with the average 8.34 pieces/m³,0.01--187.91 pieces/m³ in Jellyfish with the average 22.17 pieces/m³,0.03--9.57 pieces/m³ in Chaetognaths with the average 2.10 pieces/m³, 0.02--18.14 pieces/m³ in Euphausiacea with the average 2.16 pieces/m³ and 0.16--11.01 pieces/m³ in Lucifer with the average 2.30 pieces/m³. Similarly, in the Yellow Sea, the abundance of MPs in common zooplankton taxon are Copepod (0.01--22.63 pieces/m³ and the average 3.85 pieces/m³), Euphausiacea (0.05--22.63pieces/m³ and the average 3.43 pieces/m³), Chaetognaths (0.08--9.93 pieces/m³ and the average 2.06 pieces/m³), Siphonohore (0.19--59.31 pieces/m³ and the average 11.26 pieces/m³).
In general, the fibrous MPs accounted for the major part in zooplankton. In the East China Sea, The length of fibrous MPs from different zooplankton groups are between 18.12—3762.88μm and the average length is 291.08μm. The main chemical components of the MPs are Polymerized-oxidized organic material (35.90%) and Polyester (25.64%). Similarly, in the Yellow Sea, The length of fibrous MPs are between 10.25—996.75μm and the average length is 258.99μm. The main chemical components are Polymerized-oxidized organic material (21.88%) and Poly(1-Octen) (21.88%).
The main conclusions of this study as follows, (1) Microplastics are universal exists in the surface waters of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. There is high concentration of MPs in the coastal areas of the coastal cities and the middle area of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. With a few exceptions, MPs’ average concentration is higher in the East China Sea than in the Yellow Sea, which means that the MPs pollution situation in East China Sea is more serious. (2) Compared with other regions of the world, the concentration of MPs in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea is still at intermediate level, but compared other reports in the East China Sea waters, the concentration of MPs has increased. (3)Microplastics are universal exists in intracorporal of zooplankton in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, which means, the MPs ingested by zooplankton is common phenomenon in nature. (4)Zooplankton may ingested MPs directly from the environment, or digested the prey contained MPs. It’s indicate that the MPs will transferred in the marine food chain, and MPs has potential effects on marine communities and marine ecosystems. (5)Fibrous MPs occupied the main part of plastics in zooplankton may cause of high density fibrous plastics in seas, or it’s difficult to excrete once MPs into the intracorporal of zooplankton.(6) The abundance of MPs in zooplankton is obviously higher than that in the surface waters of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. In the zooplankton of higher trophic level, the abundance of MPs is relatively more. This indicate that zooplankton has accumulation of micro plastic.
学科领域地球科学 ; 海洋科学 ; 海洋调查与监测
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/136659
专题胶州湾海洋生态系统国家野外研究站
作者单位1.中国科学院海洋研究所
2.中国科学院大学
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刘涛. 微塑料在黄东海的分布及其在浮游动物体内累积的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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