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不同改性粘土体系对藻华生物的去除效率及其机制研究
邱丽霞1,2,3
学位类型硕士
导师俞志明 ; 曹西华
2017-05-12
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业环境工程
关键词改性粘土 藻华生物 去除效率 除藻机制
其他摘要    近年来,随人类活动加剧,藻华灾害频繁发生,影响范围和持续时间不断增加,给海洋环境和沿岸经济带来巨大损失。为了更好地应对当前藻华灾害频发的状况,本文在改性粘土应急处置有害藻华技术的基础上,进一步研究了不同改性粘土体系对有害藻华生物的去除效率,探讨了其除藻机制,进一步补充和完善了改性粘土应急处置有害藻华的技术与方法。主要结果如下:
    (1)无机改性粘土的除藻效率及机理研究
    不同无机改性粘土除藻效率存在一定差异,其中,D型、E型和F型改性粘土对球形棕囊藻、赤潮异弯藻、东海原甲藻、中肋骨条藻均有较好的去除效果,但使用浓度较高时对藻液pH有一定影响;A型、B型和C型改性粘土对赤潮异弯藻、东海原甲藻和中肋骨条藻有较高的去除效率,但对球形棕囊藻去除能力较差。不同藻华生物在去除效率方面也存在较大差异,一般来说,藻细胞(或藻细胞群体)越接近球形、个体越小、密度越大、运动能力越强,则越难去除。不同改性条件对改性粘土除藻能力有一定影响,选择合适的改性粘土种类、增强改性粘土正电性、降低悬浮液pH、增加改性粘土使用浓度和改性化合物浓度,有利于进一步提高改性粘土对藻华生物的去除能力。
    (2)有机-无机复合改性粘土去除有害藻华效率研究
    有机-无机复合改性粘土除藻效果受有机改性化合物含量和分子量的影响。实验条件下,随PAM含量的增加,PAM-MC和PAM/PAC-MC对球形棕囊藻的去除效率呈现先升高后降低的趋势。而粘土经TA和PAC复合改性后,除藻能力得到提升,随改性粘土中TA含量增加,去除效率呈现先降低后升高的趋势。TA/PAC-MC对东海原甲藻有较好的去除效果,但对球形棕囊藻去除效果不理想。
    (3)氧化复合改性粘土的除藻效率及机理研究
    粘土颗粒经氧化复合改性后,由表面负电性转变为表面正电性,且比表面积增加,具有一定氧化能力,电中和作用、卷扫作用和氧化作用增强,絮凝除藻能力得到大幅度提升。氧化复合改性粘土(KHSO5/PAC-MC)可快速高效消除藻华生物,且其除藻能力受分散介质和改性方式影响很小,可持续发挥除藻作用、促使海水pH恢复正常水体水平,具有良好的应用前景。
;     Recently, the frequent harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been observed. The bloom frequency, magnitude and duration time continuously increase, leading to serious damages to the marine environments and local economy. In order to cope with the situation of frequent HABs, in the current research, we compared the removal efficiencies of HABs organisms with different types of modified clay (MC), and discussed the flocculation mechanism. This study can be treated as a reference for the control and mitigation of HABs in an emergency situation. The main results were as follows:
    (1) The removal efficiency of algae using inorganic MC and potential mechanism
    The difference of algae removal ability by different types of modified clay were determined. D-MC, E-MC, F-MC had good performance in removal of all HABs species. A-MC, B-MC, C-MC showed high removal efficiencies in Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum donghaiense and Heterosigma akashiwo, while they were not efficient in removal of Phaeocystis globosa. In addition, differences in distinct HABs species removal by modified clay were found. Specifically, the small algal cells with strong moving capability (shape were spherical or close to the spherical) were difficult to remove. The ability of modified clay in removal of algae was influenced by modified conditions. Appropriate modified clay type, enhancing the surface positive charge, increasing the concentration of modifier and modified clay, decreasing the pH of modified clay suspension can benefit removal efficiency for HABs organisms.
    (2) The removal efficiency of algae using organic-inorganic combined MC and potential mechanism
    The removal efficiency of organic-inorganic combined MC was affected by the concentration and molecular weight of organic modifier. The removal efficiency of PAM-MC firstly increased and then decreased with increasing concentration of PAM. After modified by PAC and TA, the clay particles showed higher removal ability of algae. TA/PAC-MC displayed high removal efficiency for Prorocentrum donghaiense when compared with Phaeocystis globosa.
    (3) The removal efficiency of algae using oxi-inorganic combined MC and potential mechanism
    After modified by oxidation and PAC, the algae removal ability was profoundly enhanced. Oxi-inorganic modified clay, namely KHSO5/PAC-MC, could rapidly remove algal organisms. Its removal ability was barely affected by suspension medium and modified method. After adding oxi-inorganic MC, the pH of algae culture solution decreased, gradually approaching to seawater. In summary, oxi-inorganic MC is one of promising and effective methods to control HABs.
学科领域环境工程学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/136648
专题海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室
作者单位1.中国科学院海洋研究所
2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室
3.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
邱丽霞. 不同改性粘土体系对藻华生物的去除效率及其机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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