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滨海电厂新型电解电极材料制备及其防污行为初步研究
zhang meixia
学位类型硕士
导师段继周
2017-05-12
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业海洋腐蚀与防护
关键词电解海水 防海洋生物污损 阳极材料 活性氧
摘要 丰富的海洋资源为生产生活提供了很大的便利,尤其是滨海城市。匮乏的淡水资源使得海水成为滨海电厂循环冷却水的主要冷源。然而对于作为一个复杂的生态系统的海洋,在作为冷却水时,其中的海洋生物很容易附着在滨海电厂的设施上,一方面影响其取水的流量、一方面附着生物进一步带来严重的腐蚀问题。如何防止海洋生物污损,是一直困扰滨海电厂的重大问题。防污涂料、化学加药、电解海水产氯防污是目前应用于滨海电厂比较成熟有效的手段,然而这些刺激性的化学试剂对环境带来一定的影响,并且从长远的角度看危害着生态安全。电化学防污技术,可能更通常的说法是电解防污技术,其基本原理是通过在电极材料表面施加的一定大小的电流,电解海水产生有效杀生成分如活性氯(次氯酸)、过氧化氢等氧化性物质来快速杀灭或驱离附着的生物,起到防污的作用。由于产生的氧化性物质能够快速分解成无毒的物质(氯离子、氧气等)。因此,作为控制生物污损最安全、最有效的电化学防污技术,是一种适用于滨海电厂的具有广阔应用前景的防污技术。通过电解海水来产生具有氧化活性的活性氧进行海洋生物防污的技术,是一种新型的,产物易降解,且对生态系统无危害的防污手段,其核心在于电解防污阳极材料的筛选和制备。
本文从阳极材料的筛选、预处理方法等方面研究各因素对电解防污用阳极材料性能的影响及其评价标准,通过电沉积实验,研发出了一种用于电解海水产生活性氧来防止海洋生物污损附着的的金属氧化物涂层(Dimensionally Stable Anode DSA)复合电极。探讨了金属氧化物涂层的发生氧化还原反应的机理,研究了通电情况下的复合电极防止小球藻附着的效果以及不同电沉积条件下得到的复合电极的耗能及表面形貌。在实验室和天然海水环境下,评价纳米DSA阳极电催化阳极电解条件下的活性成分,进一步解析出其防止海洋生物附着的原理和机制。本实验拟基于导电阳极找出在海洋环境中的新的先进的电解防污性能的纳米材料,开展实验室以及实海条件下通电条件下上述电催化材料防止海洋生物附着的机理研究,探究和发现应对污损生物附着的措施,可以帮助我们解决防止海洋污损附着生物在海洋工程装备表面附着的难题。具体的研究结果如下:
(1)通过电沉积方法,二电极体系电沉积制备的钛基二氧化锰涂层,根据复合电极制备的不同工艺,包括但不限于电沉积体系的温度、电沉积电解液的浓度、电沉积的电流密度等。根据钛阳极的前处理等研究结果表明:不同的控制条件,电沉积制得的涂层的结构和性能大不相同,常温条件下所制得的涂层电极表面粗糙,且电极表面呈现棕褐色,在80℃条件下制备所得到的复合电极具有较好的致密性和稳定性。
(2)通过电化学以及扫描电镜测试发现,采用上述方法制备得到的复合电极具有足够大的表面积,具有较强的耐蚀性,具有一定的稳定性和电催化活性。
(3)经过防污性能实验测试发现,本方法所制备的钛基锰氧化物复合电极具有良好的防小球藻附着的效果。
其他摘要Extensive marine resources provides a great convenience for the production and life, especially the coastal city. The scarcity of freshwater resources makes seawater a major cold source for circulating cooling water in coastal power plants. However, ocean as a complex ecosystem, when act as a cooling water, where the marine life is easily attached to the facilities in the coastal power plant, on the one hand the impact of its water flow, on the one hand attached to the biological further serious corrosion problems. How to prevent marine biological defacement, has been plagued by the major problems of coastal power plants. Antimicrobial coatings, chemical dosing, electrolysis seawater chlorine pollution is currently used in coastal power plants are more mature and effective means, but these irritating chemicals on the environment are thought bring a certain impact, and in the long term harm the ecological safety. Electrochemical anti-fouling technology, it may be more common to say that electrolytic antifouling technology, the basic principle is through the electrode material applied to the surface of a certain size of the current, electrolysis of seawater to produce effective killing ingredients such as active chlorine (hypochlorous acid), peroxide hydrogen and other oxidizing substances can quickly kill or remove the attached organisms, playing the role of anti-fouling. As the resulting oxidizing substances can be quickly decomposed into non-toxic substances (chloride, oxygen, etc.). Therefore, as the most safe and effective anti-fouling technology to control biological fouling, it is an anti-fouling technology with wide application prospect for coastal power plants. It is a new kind of anti-fouling technology which is easy to degrade and has no harm to the ecosystem. The core of the method is to screen the electrolytic antifouling anode material by electrolyzing seawater to produce active oxygen with oxidative activity.
In this paper, the effects of various factors on the performance of anodic materials for electrolytic antifouling and its evaluation criteria were studied from the aspects of screening and pretreatment of anode materials. An electrodeposition experiment was developed to produce an active oxygen for electrolysis of seawater to prevent oceans bio-stained metal oxide coating (Dimensionally Stable Anode DSA) composite electrode. The mechanism of redox reaction of metal oxide coating was discussed. The effect of composite electrode on the adhesion of Chlorella vulgaris and the energy dissipation and surface morphology of the composite electrode under different electrodeposition conditions were studied. In the laboratory and natural seawater environment, the active components under the conditions of nano-DSA anodic electrocatalytic anodic electrolysis were evaluated, and the principle and mechanism of preventing the adhesion of marine organisms were further analyzed. This study is based on the conductive anode to find out the new advanced electrolytic antifouling properties of nanomaterials in the marine environment, carry out research on the mechanisms of the above-mentioned electrocatalytic materials to prevent the adhesion of marine organisms under laboratory conditions and real conditions. Found that measures to deal with fouling organisms should help us to solve the problem of preventing the adhesion of marine fouling attachments to marine engineering equipment. The results of the study are as follows:
(1) Titanium-based manganese dioxide coatings prepared by electrodeposition, two-electrode electrodeposition, different processes based on composite electrodes, including but not limited to the temperature of the electrodeposition system, the concentration of electrodeposited electrolyte, electrodeposition of the current density. According to the results of pretreatment of titanium anodes, it is shown that the structure and properties of the coatings prepared by electrodeposition are different under different control conditions. The surface of the coated electrode under normal temperature is rough and the surface of the electrode is tan , And the composite electrode prepared at 80 ℃ has good compactness and stability.
(2) Electrochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that the composite electrode prepared by the above method has a large surface area, which has strong corrosion resistance and has certain stability and electrocatalytic activity.
(3) After the antifouling performance test, it was found that the titanium-based manganese oxide composite electrode prepared by the method has good anti-chlorella adhesion effect.
学科领域海洋化学
语种英语
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/136641
专题海洋腐蚀与防护研究发展中心
作者单位1.中国科学院海洋研究所
2.中国科学院大学
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zhang meixia. 滨海电厂新型电解电极材料制备及其防污行为初步研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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