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典型钢材在黄东海离岸海水中电化学腐蚀行为研究
高杨
学位类型硕士
导师孙虎元
2017-05-12
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业海洋腐蚀与防护
关键词东黄海 离岸海水腐蚀 碳钢 不锈钢 季节变化
摘要随着人类对海洋开发的日益深入,海洋结构用钢被广泛应用于各项海洋事业,但是由于海洋环境的复杂性,使这些材料面临着严重的腐蚀问题。目前有关海洋腐蚀的研究多集中在室内或海滨、岸基试验站,缺少对离岸海水腐蚀行为和腐蚀过程的研究。因此,充分了解典型环境因素对海水,尤其是离岸海水中钢材腐蚀行为的影响,对海洋工程有重要的参考意义。
基于以上背景,本文分别进行了四种钢材春季、夏季、秋季、冬季在黄、东海海域共四个航次的调查;应用动电位极化曲线、电化学阻抗(EIS)技术在科学三号及东方红二号科考船船载实验室现场对四种钢材在黄、东海离岸海水中的腐蚀电化学行为进行了初步研究并结合形貌分析研究了其季节变化规律。获得的具体实验数据包括:45#中碳钢、Q235低碳钢、X80管线钢及316L不锈钢在2016年夏季和冬季在黄海海域各20个站位的开路电位、动电位极化曲线、电化学阻抗数据;上述四种钢材2016年在东海海域春季18个站位和秋季20个站位的开路电位、动电位极化曲线、电化学阻抗数据。本论文的主要结论如下:
(1)在黄海海域,45#中碳钢、Q235低碳钢和X80管线钢的腐蚀速率空间分布基本呈近岸低、远岸高及明显的南低北高的趋势,这种分布趋势明显与黄海海域溶解氧的分布一致;316L不锈钢的腐蚀速率在黄海海域的分布基本均匀,无明显的空间变化。45#中碳钢、Q235低碳钢和X80管线钢在黄海海域的腐蚀行为季节变化明显,冬季腐蚀较夏季严重,在近岸海域三种钢材的腐蚀情况与低氧区的形成及消亡密切相关,中部海域的腐蚀情况则受到黄海冷水团(夏季)及黄海暖流(冬季)系统的影响;而316L不锈钢腐蚀情况在黄海海域没有显著的季节变化。
(2)在东海海域,45#中碳钢、Q235低碳钢和X80管线钢的腐蚀速率空间分布基本呈近岸低、远岸高的趋势,这种分布趋势主要受温度、盐度、溶解氧的共同影响;316L不锈钢的腐蚀速率在东海海域的分布基本均匀,无明显的空间变化。45#中碳钢、Q235低碳钢和X80管线钢在东海海域的腐蚀行为季节变化明显,秋季腐蚀较春季严重,在近岸海域三种碳钢的腐蚀情况与低氧区的形成及消亡和东海沿岸水的性质密切相关,中部海域腐蚀情况则受台湾暖流的影响,而316L不锈钢腐蚀行为在东海海域无明显的季节变化。
(3)在东海及黄海海域,45#中碳钢、Q235低碳钢和X80管线钢的腐蚀速率空间分布都呈现出近岸低、远岸高的共同趋势,316L不锈钢的腐蚀速率则无明显的空间变化。就耐蚀性而言,316L不锈钢的耐腐蚀性能最好,其次为X80管线钢和45#中碳钢,Q235低碳钢的耐蚀性最差,这主要与它们的微观组织结构有关。
其他摘要With the development of ocean exploitation, steel structures are widely used in various marine engineering. However the serious corrosion problems must be considered because of the complex ocean environment. Recently, researches on the corrosion behavior of seawater are mainly focused on the coastal and shore-based test stations, indicating the lack understanding of corrosion behavior and corrosion process in offshore seawater. Consequently, the influence of typical environmental factors on the corrosion behavior of steel in seawater, especially in offshore seawater, has important reference significance to the marine engineering.
On the basis of such a background, corrosion investigations of four kinds of steels in field were conducted in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in four seasons by four cruises. The electrochemical corrosion behaviors in offshore seawater and their varying with the seasonal changing were studied by using the polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on the Dongfanghong 2 and Science 3 research vessels. The experimental data obtained include: the open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization curves of 45 steel, Q235 steel, X80 pipeline steel and 316L stainless steel in the Yellow Sea in the summer (20 stations) and winter (20 stations) in 2016; the open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization curves of the previously mentioned four steels in the East China Sea in the spring (18 stations) and autumn (20 stations) in 2016. The main results and conclusions are as follows:
(1) In the Yellow Sea, the distribution of corrosion rates of 45 steel, Q235 steel and X80 pipeline steel declined from north to south, also from the central area to the offshore, which comes to agreement with distribution of dissolved oxygen. The corrosion rate of 316L stainless steel was distributed evenly in the Yellow Sea, and its spatial variation was not obvious. Corrosion behaviors of 45 steel, Q235 steel and X80 pipeline steel in the Yellow Sea were characterized with the apparent seasonal variation; corrosion in winter was more severe than summer. The corrosion behaviors of three kinds of steels in coastal waters were closely related to the formation and extinction of low oxygen zone, while the corrosion status in the central area might be affected by the Yellow Sea cold Water Mass and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. Corrosion behaviors of 316L stainless steel were not apparent with the accompanying changes of seasons.
(2) In the East China Sea, the distribution of corrosion rates of 45 steel, Q235 steel and X80 pipeline steel declined from the central area to the offshore, which effected by the temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen. The corrosion rate of 316L stainless steel was distributed evenly in the East China Sea. Corrosion behaviors of 45 steel, Q235 steel and X80 pipeline steel in the East China Sea were characterized with the apparent seasonal variation; corrosion in autumn was more severe than spring. The corrosion behaviors of three kinds of steels in coastal waters were strongly related to the formation and extinction of low oxygen zone and the nature of coastal current water, while the corrosion status in the central area might be influenced by the taiwan warm current. Corrosion behaviors of 316L stainless steel were not apparent with the accompanying changes of seasons in the East China Sea.
(3) In the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, among the four steels, 316L stainless steel had the best corrosion resistance, followed by X80 pipeline steel and 45 steel, and the corrosion resistance of Q235 steel is the worst. The corrosion resistance is mainly related to their microstructure. The distribution of corrosion rates of 45 steel, Q235 steel and X80 pipeline steel declined from the central area to the offshore and corrosion behaviors of 316L stainless steel were not apparent with changing of location and seasons.
学科领域化学 ; 物理化学 ; 电化学 ; 地球科学 ; 海洋科学 ; 海洋调查与监测 ; 材料科学 ; 金属材料 ; 金属材料其他学科
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/136611
专题海洋腐蚀与防护研究发展中心
作者单位1.中国科学院海洋研究所
2.中国科学院大学
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高杨. 典型钢材在黄东海离岸海水中电化学腐蚀行为研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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