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黄海绿潮原因种浒苔(Ulva prolifera)的附着生长特性与沉降区域研究
耿慧霞
学位类型博士
导师于仁成
2017-05
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业海洋生态学
关键词黄海 绿潮 浒苔 孢子 配子 28-异褐藻甾醇
摘要
近年来,全球范围内绿潮(green tide)的发生频率及规模都有增长趋势。自
2007 年起,我国黄海海域也已经连续10 年暴发大规模绿潮,其原因种为浒苔
(Ulva prolifera)。每年5-7 月,浒苔在黄海海域的大规模暴发已成为一类严重
的生态灾害,给山东和江苏沿海地区造成了巨大的经济损失。研究发现,绿潮早
期的漂浮浒苔主要来自苏北浅滩海域,在风和潮流的共同作用下,大量漂浮绿藻
从苏北浅滩海域向北漂移,并在南黄海生长和聚集,最终形成大规模绿潮。与其
他海域的绿潮相比,南黄海海域的绿潮规模大、迁移距离长、影响海域面积广,
因此,其成因和效应都非常复杂,针对黄海绿潮早期来源以及后期归宿的相关研
究具有重要意义。
以往研究认为,南黄海海域的绿潮可能与苏北浅滩的紫菜养殖活动有关,推
测绿潮早期的漂浮浒苔主要来自于苏北浅滩的紫菜养殖设施。对此,本论文以绿
潮原因藻种浒苔为实验对象,比较研究了包括紫菜养殖筏架材料在内的多种基质
对浒苔孢子和配子附着和萌发的影响。研究发现,浒苔的大部分孢子和配子会在
2-6 h 内完成附着,且在前2 个小时内附着速率最高;浒苔的孢子和配子在不同
材料上都能完成附着萌发,但萌发数量存在显著差异,在紫菜养殖筏架相关人工
材料(塑料、竹片、麻绳、塑料绳、尼龙网衣和塑料网衣)上的萌发数量显著高
于浅滩上的天然材料(海泥、细砂和石块);另外,浒苔孢子和配子在橡胶上的
附着萌发则受到抑制,显著低于其他人工材料。研究结果表明,通过人为活动在
苏北浅滩区布设的大量紫菜养殖设施,为浒苔等绿藻的生长提供了重要的附着基,
是绿潮形成早期浒苔生物量快速增加的重要原因。
南黄海海域绿潮发生规模大、影响区域广,有可能导致严重的生态效应。但
是,目前对于南黄海绿潮后期大量漂浮绿藻的归宿还少有研究,在一定程度上限
制了对黄海绿潮生态效应的认识。对此,本研究尝试以石莼属绿藻中的主要甾醇
化合物28-异褐藻甾醇作为标志物,来追踪绿潮后期大量浒苔的沉降区域。本研
究完善了藻类和沉积物中甾醇的提取方法,建立了28-异褐藻甾醇及其它甾醇化
合物的气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)分析方法;并应用所建立的方法分析了中国近海多种常见有害藻华原因种的甾醇组成状况,探讨了28-异褐藻甾醇作为绿
潮藻类标志物的特异性,发现沉积物中28-异褐藻甾醇含量与浒苔生物量呈正相
关性;分析了28-异褐藻甾醇在沉积物中的稳定性,证明沉积物中高含量的28-异
褐藻甾醇可在沉积物中稳定保存至少一个月;分析了2015 年8 月-2016 年9 月
期间黄海海域4 次现场调查中采集的表层沉积物样品,通过沉积物中28-异褐藻
甾醇的含量状况,将绿潮后期浒苔的沉降区域初步圈定在山东半岛东南部海域
(36-36.5°N,122-124°E)。
针对南黄海海域的大规模绿潮问题,本研究一方面以浒苔的附着生长特征为
切入点,对比分析了不同附着基对浒苔孢子和配子附着和萌发的影响,揭示了人
类活动导致的生境改变在绿潮形成中的作用;另一方面利用28-异褐藻甾醇作为
生物标志物,首次圈定了黄海绿潮后期大量漂浮绿藻的沉降区域。研究结果不仅
有助于阐明绿潮成因,全面理解黄海绿潮的生态效应及其导致次生灾害的可能性,
也可望为寻找养殖筏架等的替代材料,探索绿潮的防控策略提供依据。
其他摘要
Green tides increased in both frequency and intensity globally over the last several
decades and became an important marine environmental issue. Since 2007, large-scale
green tides have been recorded in the southern Yellow Sea of China for 10 consecutive
years, and the causative species was identified as Ulva prolifera. Green tides occurred
in the Yellow Sea caused severe ecological consequences and huge economic losses in
Shandong and Jiangsu province. Previous studies showed that massive green algae
originated from Subei Shoal of the southern Yellow Sea, and drifted along a certain
route to the Yellow Sea under the impacts of both wind and tidal current. Compared
with those in other sea areas, green tides in the southern Yellow Sea have many unique
features, such as the long-distance transportation, huge intensity and extensive sea area
affected. Therefore, the origin and ecological effects of the green tides are quite
complicated, and it is of great significance to study the origin and fate of massive
floating green algae of green tides in the southern Yellow Sea.
The Porphyra yezoensis aquaculture rafts in the Subei Shoal have been proposed
as a major origin of floating green algae in the southern Yellow Sea, because huge
amounts of U. prolifera were observed attaching on the rafts. To understand the effects
of aquaculture rafts on the green tides in the southern Yellow Sea, various substrates for
the attachment and germination of U. prolifera spores and gametes were tested in this
study. It was found that most spores and gametes completed attachment within 2-6 h,
and the attachment rate was the highest in the first 2 hours. Laboratory experiments
showed that the germination rates of U. prolifera microscopic propagules on materials
related to aquacultural rafts (plastic, bamboo, jute rope, plastic rope, nylon netting and
plastic netting) were much higher than those associated with mudflats (mud, sand and
rock). Besides, rubber showed inhibitory effect on the germination of gametes and
spores. The results suggest that Porphyra yezoensis aquaculture rafts in Subei Shoal
provide important substrates for the microscopic propagules of U. prolifera, whichplays an important role in the rapid increase of green algal biomass.
The periodic outbreaks of the large-scale green tides formed by U. prolifera in the
southern Yellow Sea may cause severe ecological consequences. However, there is little
knowledge on the deposition region of massive floating green algae, which limits the
understandings on ecological consequences of the green tides. In this study, a method
using 28-isofucosterol as a biomarker of U. prolifera to track the deposition area of
massive floating green algae was developed. The extraction process of sterols from
algae and sediment was optimized, and the method for the determination of sterols was
established by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Sterols in
several bloom-forming algae in China were analyzed to validate the specificity of 28-
isofucosterol as a biomarker for U. prolifera. Based on the simulation experiments in
laboratory, it was found that content of 28-isofucosterol in sediment was positively
correlated with decomposed biomass of U. prolifera, and content of 28-isofucosterol in
sediment could remain stable for at least one month. Based on these findings, samples
collected during four field investigations from August 2015 to September 2016 in the
Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea were analyzed. According to the content of 28-
isofucosterol in surface sediment, the deposition region of floating green algae was
primarily identified in the sea area (122–124°E, 36–36.5°N) southeast to Shandong
Peninsula.
In conclusion, this study focused on the large-scale green tides in the southern
Yellow Sea. For the origin of green tides in the Yellow Sea, the attachment
characteristics of the gametes and spores of U. prolifera were studied using different
substrates, and the potential roles of Porphyra aquaculture rafts in the early formation
of green tides was revealed. To track the fate of green tide algae, the content of 28-
isofucosterol in surface sediment was analyzed, then the deposition region of massive
floating green algae in the Yellow Sea was primarily identified for the first time. The
findings in this study will contribute to the understandings of both formation
mechanisms and ecological consequences of green tides in the southern Yellow Sea. It
will also provide important data to look for alternative materials for aquacultural raftsand to develop prevention and control strategies against green tides.
学科领域海洋科学 ; 生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/136607
专题海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室
作者单位中国科学院海洋研究所
推荐引用方式
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耿慧霞. 黄海绿潮原因种浒苔(Ulva prolifera)的附着生长特性与沉降区域研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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