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南黄海网采浮游植物生物量及群落结构季节与年际变化
杨洋
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor孙晓霞
2016-05-18
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline海洋生态学
Keyword网采浮游植物 南黄海 碳含量 群落结构 季节变化 年际变化
Abstract浮游植物生物量和群落结构的变动影响着海洋生态系统结构与功能的稳定性,进而影响全球气候的变化。本文根据2011—2012年不同月份网采浮游植物样品的分析结果,从碳含量和丰度角度系统研究了南黄海网采浮游植物生物量、硅甲藻相对比例及优势种属的季节变化;进一步地,与2000—2003年以及1958—1959年全国海洋综合调查时期的历史调查资料整合,分析春季、夏季和秋季南黄海网采浮游植物的长期变化规律,以期揭示中国近海浮游植物群落结构的演变规律。
        根据4月、6月、8月、10月和11月的浮游植物样品,借助流式影像术(Flow Cytometry and Microscopy, FlowCAM),分析了南黄海海域网采浮游植物的季节变化规律。结果表明,浮游植物总碳含量及分布均表现出明显的季节差异,春季和秋季浮游植物的空间分布上纬度差异较小,呈现由近岸到外海降低的特点;夏季,海域南部的浮游植物生物量远高于南黄海北部及中部区域。浮游植物总碳含量最高值出现在夏季,为(46192.9±117905.1)μgC/m3,最低值出现在秋季,在1000μgC/m3以下。甲藻碳含量在浮游植物总碳含量中所占比例在夏季8月最低,为14.05%,在初春和秋末较高,约为48%。南部海域中甲藻的相对含量明显较低。
        结合理化因子讨论了各季节影响南黄海浮游植物生物量及群落结构变动的因素。相关性分析表明,各季节浮游植物均受到温度、盐度和营养盐的综合影响。春季甲藻碳含量与温度呈显著负相关关系,夏、秋季各调查月份的浮游植物总生物量均与温度呈显著的正相关关系;浮游植物与盐度为负相关关系。营养盐方面,春季,甲藻生物量与磷酸盐含量呈显著的负相关关系。夏季,浮游植物与溶解无机氮含量呈显著正相关关系,且硅藻和甲藻对于溶解无机氮的利用具有一定的选择偏向性。夏季海域中的硅酸盐含量对硅甲藻的相对比例具有重要影响,该季节不存在明显的磷限制。秋季,硅藻、甲藻生物量均与磷酸盐含量呈显著正相关关系,磷限制较为明显。冗余分析(Redundancy analysis, RDA)表明,不同种属对环境因子的适应性存在差异。
        各站位网采浮游植物的碳含量与丰度之间存在显著的回归转换关系,形式为 ,其中C为碳含量(μgC/m3),abundance为细胞丰度(cells/m3),k、b为常数,这使得以细胞丰度为基础估算浮游植物碳含量成为了可能。对于网采浮游植物整体,k、b的值分别为0.48和0.49,另外分别建立了硅藻、甲藻以及黄东海海域常见优势种属角毛藻属(Chaetoceros)、圆筛藻属(Coscinodiscus)、伪菱形藻属(Pseudonitzschia)、骨条藻属(Skeletonema)、角藻属(Ceratium)、原多甲藻属(Protoperidinium)和扁甲藻属(Pyrophacus)的丰度与碳含量的回归转换关系。本文所建立的丰度转换碳含量法与体积转换碳含量法具有良好的一致性,简化了海域整体浮游植物碳含量的估测方法。
       以2011—2013年南黄海网采浮游植物调查数据与不同历史时期的调查资料作比较,研究了南黄海海域浮游植物的长期变化规律。结果表明,春季网采浮游植物的生物量具有显著地增长,统计分析表明2011年春季的碳含量及丰度均显著高于1959年春季。空间分布上,近岸海域在各个年份均为碳含量的高值区域。2011年春季在外海海域也有碳含量高值区域的出现,相较于1959年低碳含量区域的范围明显缩小。另外,甲藻碳含量在总碳含量中所占的比例明显升高,甲藻占优势地位的区域扩大,但这一特点在丰度上并未体现出来。根管藻属(Rhizosolenia)是南黄海春季的优势种属,相比于1959年,2011年优势种属的数目增多,甲藻中的角藻属成为优势种属。夏季,浮游植物丰度和碳含量的年际波动较大,在1959年分别为(2.02±3.31)×104cells/m3、(62.99±71.33)μgC/m3,均显著低于2012—2013年,其中2013年平均丰度和碳含量最高,分别为(18.73±46.68)×104cells/m3、(1110.71±2107.82)μgC/m3。1959年夏季硅藻在群落中的丰度比例大于93%,而2012—2013年这一比例下降为50%—60%,相应地,硅藻碳含量比例由70%—85%下降为18%—28%,且甲藻占优势的范围扩大。硅藻碳密度较低,在甲藻丰度增大的情况下其含碳量比例下降明显。相对于1959年,2012—2013年夏季的角毛藻属和伪菱形藻属,以及甲藻中的角藻属和夜光藻属(Noctiluca)成为新的优势种属。浮游植物生物量在春、夏季具有显著的增长趋势,这种趋势在南黄海的近岸海域最为明显,表明人类活动引起的陆源输入对环境具有重要的影响。与春、夏季不同,秋季浮游植物生物量整体未出现明显变动,且各个年份秋季浮游植物总生物量的空间分布格局大体一致。秋季也出现甲藻所占比例升高的现象。
Other AbstractVariations in phytoplankton biomass and community structure will impact the structure and function stability of marine ecosystem, and further impact the global climate change. Based on recent data collected in different months in 2011—2012, seasonal variations in phytoplankton biomass, proportion of dinoflagellates and dominant genus were analyzed. We further analyzed the long-term changes of net phytoplankton by comparing with historical data from 2000—2003 and 1958—1959, aimed to reveal the evolution trend of phytoplankton community structure in China’s coastal waters.
       Based on the analysis results of net phytoplankton samples collected from five months, i.e. April, June, August, October and November, using Flow Cytometry and Microscopy (FlowCAM), seasonal variations in phytoplankton were analyzed. The results indicated obvious seasonal differences in total phytoplankton carbon biomass and spatial distribution. In spring and autumn, carbon biomass decreased from inshore to offshore regions while in summer abundant phytoplankton existed in the southern region. The maximum carbon biomass of total phytoplankton was (46192.9±117905.1)μgC/m3 in the summer, while the minimum was below 1000μgC/m3 in autumn. The proportion of dinoflagellate was lowest in summer (14.05%) based on carbon biomass, whereas in April or November the proportion was about 48%. Dinoflagellate proportion was relatively lower in the southern region.
        The environmental factors that influenced phytoplankton communities in the South Yellow Sea were discussed. Correlation analysis revealed that phytoplankton was impacted by temperature, salinity and the dissolved inorganic nutrients in each season. In spring, dinoflagellates negatively correlated with temperature, salinity and phosphate. In summer and autumn, phytoplankton was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with salinity. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen and reactive silicate were the key environmental factors that influenced phytoplankton in summer. There was a difference in the selection of dissolved inorganic nitrogen between diatoms and dinoflagellates. Silicate concentration was the main factor that affected the proportion of diatoms in phytoplankton communities. Phosphorus limitation was found in autumn but not summer. In autumn, both the carbon biomass of diatoms and dinoflagellates were significantly correlated positively with phosphorus. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the adaptability towards environmental factors was different among various phytoplankton groups.
        Significant regression relationships for net phytoplankton biomass and abundance were established in the form of , where C represents carbon biomass (μgC/m3), abundance represents cell abundance based on cell counts(cells/m3), and k and b are constants. Based on these relationships, carbon biomass could be estimated from cell abundance. The values of k and b were 0.48 and 0.49 respectively for total net phytoplankton. Regression  equations  for diatoms, dinoflagellates and common dominate genus, i.e. Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Pseudonitzschia, Skeletonema, Ceratium, Protoperidinium and Pyrophacus, were also established respectively. The results also confirmed the good agreement between converted carbon biomass by counting and by volume measurement. Using C:abundance relationships may simplify the methodology and analysis of experimental and model simulations of fluxes in marine ecosystem biomass.
        Based on recent data collected in 2011—2013 and historical data in 1958—1959 and 2000—2003, long-term changes of net phytoplankton community in the South Yellow Sea were analyzed. The results indicated that the biomass of net phytoplankton increased dramatically in spring. Statistical analysis indicated that both phytoplankton abundance and carbon biomass in spring of 2011 were significantly higher than those in 1959. The high value of carbon biomass in spring were distributed in the inshore areas in each year. High value of phytoplankton biomass was also found offshores in 2011 and the area of low carbon biomass significantly narrowed. In spring, the proportion of dinoflagellates increased obviously and the area where dinoflagellate dominated expanded based on carbon biomass. Rhizosolenia was dominated in spring in the study area. Compared with 1959, the number of dominate genus increased in 2011, and Ceratium became dominated in the community. In summer, obvious inter-annual fluctuation in phytoplankton abundance and biomass were found. Both abundance and carbon biomass of net phytoplankton in 1959, (2.02±3.31)×104cells/m3 and (62.99±71.33)μgC/m3, were significantly lower than those in 2012—2013. The maximum of abundance, (18.73±46.68)×104cells/m3, and carbon biomass, (1110.71±2107.82μgC/m3), were found in 2013. Compared with 1959, the abundance proportion of diatom in 2012—2013 decreased from 93% to 50%—60% and the carbon biomass proportion decreased from 70%—85% to 18%—28%, respectively. The area where dinoflagellate dominated expanded. The proportion of dinoflagellates carbon biomass increased because of the low carbon density in diatom and the increase of dinoflagellate abundance. Chaetoceros, Pseudonitzschia, Ceratium and Noctiluca became the new dominant genus in 2012—2013. The increased trend in phytoplankton in spring and summer was most obvious in the coastal regions which indicated that the change of marine physical and chemical factors from terrestrial input induced by human activities had great impact on phytoplankton communities. Different from spring and summer, the change in phytoplankton biomass was not obvious in autumn and the distribution patterns were in accordance in different research stages. The proportion of dinoflagellates also increased in autumn.
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/116995
Collection胶州湾海洋生态系统国家野外研究站
Affiliation1.中国科学院海洋研究所
2.中国科学院大学
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨洋. 南黄海网采浮游植物生物量及群落结构季节与年际变化[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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