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西北太平洋地区海带种群遗传及分子系统地理学研究
张杰
学位类型博士
导师段德麟
2016-05-25
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业海洋生物学
关键词海带 种群 遗传多样性 遗传结构 动态历史 系统地理学
摘要海带(Saccharina japonica)是西北太平洋沿岸特有的大型经济褐藻,具有生态、经济价值。为了解海带起源、分布和演化过程,以及探究养殖驯化对我国栽培海带种群的影响,本研究开展了海带种群遗传及分子系统地理学研究,旨在于为海带遗传选育、资源保护与利用打下基础。本研究得出以下结论:
(1)应用2个线粒体标记(cox1和trnW-L)对26个种群(612个体)的野生海带种群遗传多样性、遗传结构和种群动态历史进行了分析。结果表明日本北海道地区的野生海带种群具有最高的遗传多样性。野生海带种群主要分成了4大类群(类群1:北海道地区种群和韩国的种群;类群2:北海道西北部的种群;类群3:俄罗斯远东地区的种群;类群4:中国自然繁殖的海带种群)。单倍型网络图分析结果表明野生海带群体存在2个谱系,这2个谱系间不存在基因交流,但谱系内海带种群间存在不对称的基因交流。BSP分析(Bayesian skyline plots)和中性检验表明野生海带种群在10.45 Ka发生了种群扩张。
(2)利用24个SSR标记和2个线粒体标记(cox1和trnW-L)对35个野生海带种群进行了起源和演化过程的研究,证实日本北海道渡岛附近的海带种群其遗传多样性最高,其特有单倍型最多,特有等位基因频率也最高,说明该地可能是野生海带的起源地。野生海带种群的迁移过程是从北海道南部沿海,沿着西海岸向北迁移,一直到萨哈林岛西海岸,该分布过程主要是受对马暖流的影响,而野生海带在日本海西岸的分布则受里门寒流的影响。SSR标记分析结果表明,其可分成两大遗传组,一组包括俄罗斯远东沿岸的海带种群,另一组包括日本和韩国沿岸的野生海带种群。俄罗斯萨哈林地区和日本北海道西北部的野生海带种群在遗传上有混杂现象,日本海西岸的野生海带种群与其它野生海带种群已有明显的遗传分化。
(3)采用19个SSR标记对17个中国常见的海带栽培种群、3个中国沿海自然繁殖海带种群和和8个野生海带种群进行种群遗传学的对比分析。我国目前栽培海带种群遗传多样性低于野生海带种群,这表明养殖、选育及高温驯化降低了其遗传多样性。海带种群可分成2大类群:野生类群(俄罗斯和日本的野生种群)和驯化类群(中国养殖种群和自然繁殖种群,DF3例外)。分子方差分析表明这2大类群间有显著的遗传变异(30.49 %)。我国南方、北方的栽培海带种群间已有中度的遗传分化,这与养殖、选育及环境(海水水温)因素密切相关。日本北海道和本州沿岸的3个野生海带种群与中国养殖海带种群间存在较高的遗传相似度,间接说明中国栽培种群曾经可能从日本北海道和本州地区引入过野生种质资源。
其他摘要Saccharina japonica is a commercially and ecologically important brown seaweed and native to coast of Northwestern Pacific Ocean. To understand its origins, distribution and evolutionary history, we conducted population genetic and phylogeorgraphic analysis, which will be benefitial to the genetic breeding, conservation and utilization of the kelp. Followed results are obtained:
(1) Based on the twomitochondrial markers (cox1 and trnW-L sequences), we investigated the genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of the 26 S. japonica populations (612 individuals). It is showed that the kelp populations along the coast of Hokkaido in Japan exhibited the highest genetic diversity. Bayesian Analysis of Population Structure (BAPS) revealed four clusters in the kelp species (cluster 1: Hokkaido and South Korea; cluster 2: northwestern Hokkaido; cluster 3: Far Eastern Russia; cluster 4: China). The network inferred from concatenated data exhibited two shallow genealogies corresponding to two BAPS groups (cluster 2 and cluster 3). No direct gene flow between these two shallow kelp genealogies, but the populations within genealogy exhibited the asymmetric gene exchange. Bayesian skyline plots (BSP) and neutrality tests implied that S. japonica populations experienced postglacial expansion around 10.45 ka.
(2) Two mitochondrial molecular markers (cox1 and trnW-L) and 24 microsatellite loci were used to study the origin, distribution and genetic patterns of the wild S. japonica populations. Compared with the other populations, those along the coast of Oshima in Hokkaido exhibited the highest genetic diversity, and with more private haplotypes and higher private allele frequency. The most reasonable evolutionary scenario indicated that S. japonica originated from Oshima in southeastern Hokkaido, migrated into the western coast of Hokkaido and inched in the coast of Sakhalin in Russia. The kelp distribution process was presmuly driven by the Tsushima current; moreover the Limen current facilitated their distribution in the western coast of Japan Sea. The populations in the Far-eastern Russia coast formed into one genetic group, and those of Japanese and Korean formed the other genetic group, while populations in Sakhalin and northern coast of Hokkaido had genetic mixture. Due to the Limen current influences, the populations in western coast of Japan Sea exhibited significant genetic differentiation with the other kelp populations.
(3) Nineteen microsatellite loci were used to explore the influence of domestication and breeding on the genetic patterns of S. japonica. It is showed that the wild kelp populations exhibited higher genetic diversity than the cultivated populations. Generally, consecutive selection, breeding and cultivation resulted in the decline of genetic diversity. Genetic structure of S. japonica populations could form into two major groups, the wild group (including the wild populations in Russia and Japan) and the domesticated group (including all populations in China except for DF3), which was confirmed by 30.49% of genetic variance between these two groups. Moderate genetic differentiation existed between the northern and southern cultivated kelp populations, and it might be caused by the different breeding programme and seawater temperature influences. Referred from higher genetic similarities among the three wild populations in Hokkaido and Honshu and Chinese populations, we proposed wild germplasm in Hokkaido and Honshu might be introduced to China for breeding and cultivation.
学科领域海洋生物学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/116985
专题实验海洋生物学重点实验室
作者单位中国科学院海洋研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张杰. 西北太平洋地区海带种群遗传及分子系统地理学研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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