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中国近海与西太平洋浮游植物光合活性特征研究
Alternative Title中国近海与西太平洋浮游植物光合活性特征研究
李俊磊1,2
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor孙晓霞
2016-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline海洋生态学
Keyword中国近海 西太平洋 浮游植物 光合活性 环境因子
Abstract本论文利用叶绿素荧光动力学技术对中国近海与西太平洋海域浮游植物光合活性特征进行了原位调查研究,同时通过室内受控实验比较分析了不同P浓度及N/P对中肋骨条藻和东海原甲藻生长及光合作用的影响,主要得到以下研究成果:
(1)对胶州湾冬季浮游植物光合活性原位调查表明,冬季大部分时期胶州湾浮游植物丰度和叶绿素含量极低,但是湾内浮游植物具有较强的光合活性,加上相对稳定的水文、生物等环境以及较丰富的营养盐和相对有利的营养盐结构,有助于中肋骨条藻等嗜氮性集群化硅藻的生长,是推动2月份冬季浮游植物高峰期出现的关键生理生态因素。
(2)对黄东海夏季浮游植物光合活性原位调查表明,浮游植物光合活性受到光照,营养盐浓度以及浮游植物结构组成的深刻影响,黄海冷水团、黑潮,长江冲淡水等不同水系和水团运动引起的环境变化深刻影响着浮游植物光合活性,从而进一步影响浮游植物群落结构的变化。夏季黄东海最大光化学量子产量(Fv/Fm)与叶绿素a(Chl a)浓度呈现正相关关系,说明中国近海夏季浮游植物生物量较高的海域Fv/Fm值也较大。Fv/Fm与亚硝酸氮(NO2-)浓度呈显著正相关关系,反映了黄东海夏季浮游植物细胞代谢和光合作用的关系,即伴随着植物细胞代谢释放NO2-,微藻的光化学反应同时得到加强,导致Fv/Fm值与NO2-浓度具有相同的变化趋势。自然海区中Fv/Fm与浮游植物群落组成和粒级结构的关系根本上反映的是光照和营养盐等不同环境条件对浮游植物光合反应机制的一种影响。
(3)对西太平洋冬季浮游植物光合活性原位调查表明,在高温寡营养低生产力的海域,温盐跃层导致下层富含营养盐海水难以上涌,再加上表层较强的光照辐射和较高的温度,环境因子的限制抑制了浮游植物光合作用,导致光合活性降低,固碳能力下降,造成了西太等大洋海区低生产力海域的出现;DY断面Fv/Fm最大值水层与叶绿素最大层(DCM)相吻合,既保护了浮游植物光反应中心不受强烈光辐射影响,又支持了DCM层浮游植物相对较强的光合作用和对整个水体初级生产力的贡献率。
(4) 比较分析了不同P浓度(LP组,MP组,HP组,P浓度分别为0.36μmol/L,3.6μmol/L,36μmol/L)及N/P(N:P=1,8,16,32,64,128)对中肋骨条藻和东海原甲藻生长及光合作用的影响。结果表明:至培养结束,HP浓度组两种藻细胞具有最大的藻细胞数量,比生长速率和叶绿素相对含量。中肋骨条藻LP组Fv/Fm下降最多,而东海原甲藻HP组Fv/Fm下降幅度最大。HP条件下中肋骨条藻有更高的快速光曲线和实际光化学量子产量ΦPS II,其实际光合作用能力最强,而东海原甲藻则是MP条件下更好,相同P浓度和N/P条件下,东海原甲藻比中肋骨条藻具有更大的最大电子传递速率rETRmax和实际量子产量,表明东海原甲藻光合作用能力高于中肋骨条藻。东海原甲藻在MP条件下Fv/FmrETRmax更大,表明中低P浓度条件下东海原甲藻光合潜力和实际光合作用能力都更好,这可能是这些海区甲藻类在浮游植物群落中所占比例大幅攀升的一个重要原因。
Other AbstractIn this paper, photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in China sea and the West Pacific were studied by using chlorophyll fluorescence technique, besides the in situ measurement, the effects of different phosphorus (P) concentrations and nitrogen(N)/P ratios on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense were studied via laboratory controlled experiments. The main research work and conclusions are summarized as follows:
(1). Photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in winter in the Jiaozhou bay were measured by using Phyto-PAM. From the results we can know that though phytoplankton abundance was extremely low in December, strong photochemical activity combined with relatively stable hydrological, biological environment, and rich nutrients would lead to the peak of phytoplankton abundance in February in the Jiaozhou bay.
    (2). The detailed distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in summer in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea was measured, the results show that photosynthetic characteristics and activity of phytoplankton were influenced by its biological characteristics and surrounding ecological factors, such as irradiance, nutrients and phytoplankton community. Meanwhile, the thermally stratified structure and the movement of water masses, such as the Yangtze River diluted water, the Yellow Sea cold water mass and other different water system, also had an important impact on phytoplankton photosynthetic activity and characteristics. Fv/Fm of phytoplankton in summer was significantly positively associated with nitrate content (NO2-), which reflects relationship between metabolism and photosynthesis of phytoplankton: accompanied by NO2- metabolism, photosynthesis and photosynthetic capacity may be enhanced simultaneously, so the Fv/Fm value would increase with the NO2- released by phytoplankton. Fundamentally speaking, the relationship between Fv/Fm and phytoplankton community structure in the natural sea area reflects the effects of different environmental conditions (such as light and nutrient salt) on the photosynthetic reaction mechanism of phytoplankton.
(3). From the in situ study on photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in winter in the West Pacific, we come to the conclusions as follows: in some high temperature, low nutrient and low productivity ocean area, the restriction of environmental factors inhibited the photosynthesis of phytoplankton, so the photosynthetic activity and carbon fixation ability of phytoplankton were decreased and this is one of the reasons for the low productivity of the ocean area; On transect DY, water layer with the maximum value of Fv/Fm was consistent with the Deep Chlorophyll Maximum (DCM) layer, which could not only protect the photochemical reaction center of phytoplankton from harm of intense light radiation, but also guarantee the contribution rate of DCM layer to the primary productivity of the whole water body.
(4). The effects of different phosphorus (P) concentrations (0.36, 3.6, and 36 μmol/L corresponding to low-, middle-, and high-P concentration groups, respectively) and nitrogen (N)/P ratios on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense were studied. For both species, the high-P (HP) concentration group showed the greatest algal density and highest specific growth rate. Changes in the maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) were monitored under the various P and N/P conditions. The largest decrease in Fv/Fm was in the low-P (LP) group in S. costatum and in the HP group in P. donghaiense. There were high rapid light curves and photochemical quantum yields (ΦPS II) for S. costatum in the HP group, while the actual photosynthetic capacity was higher in P.
donghaiense than in S. costatum in the MP group. Under the same P concentration and N/P ratio, P. donghaiense had a larger relative maximum rate of electron transport and higher ΦPS II values than those of S. costatum. Under eutrophic but relatively P-restricted conditions, P. donghaiense had higher photosynthetic activity and potential, which could cause this dinoflagellate to increasingly dominate the phytoplankton community in these conditions. 
Subject Area地球科学 ; 海洋科学 ; 海洋调查与监测
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/116967
Collection胶州湾海洋生态系统国家野外研究站
Affiliation1.中国科学院大学
2.中国科学院海洋研究所
First Author AffilicationInstitute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李俊磊. 中国近海与西太平洋浮游植物光合活性特征研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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