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不同海藻对皱纹盘鲍幼鲍生长、 贝壳色素和四种多糖裂解酶的影响
王思佳
学位类型硕士
导师刘晓
2016-05-25
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业水产养殖
关键词皱纹盘鲍 生长 贝壳色素 多糖裂解酶
其他摘要        本研究以皱纹盘鲍97选育群体第6代幼鲍为试验对象,分别投喂海带(Saccharina japonica)、石莼(Ulva lactuca)、坛紫菜(Porphyra haitanensis)和龙须菜(Gracilaria lemaneiformis)等四种海藻,就供试鲍生长、存活、贝壳颜色、贝壳色素以及多糖裂解酶活性和基因表达等方面展开系统研究。主要试验结果如下:
1      幼鲍生长、存活受不同海藻喂食影响显著
        不同处理组供试幼鲍的平均壳长、壳宽和全湿重等参数受摄食藻类影响较大。喂养试验进行120d时,石莼和坛紫菜喂养组各项指标均高于龙须菜喂养组,且差异均达到显著水平;龙须菜喂养组的各项指标均最低;海带喂养组的生长参数居中,海带组的壳宽和全湿重显著低于石莼喂养组,壳长和全湿重显著高于龙须菜喂养组。
       此外,石莼处理组的供试幼鲍壳长、壳宽和全湿重3项指标的日均增长速率均高于其它3种海藻喂养组,其次为坛紫菜组/海带组,而龙须菜组的所有指标均小于其它处理组。
       喂养120d后,石莼、海带、龙须菜和坛紫菜处理组存活率依次为100%、98.00%、97.33%和92.00%, 试验4个处理组的平均存活率达96.83%,部分死亡由于人为因素引起。
2     幼鲍贝壳颜色形成及其色素组成受不同海藻喂食影响显著
       幼鲍摄食不同海藻生成的贝壳颜色不同。摄食海带和石莼期间生成的贝壳虽然都呈绿色,但摄食海带的幼鲍生成的贝壳呈褐绿色,摄食石莼的幼鲍贝壳呈翠绿色;摄食两种红藻期间生成的贝壳虽然都是褐红色,但摄食坛紫菜生成的贝壳颜色较暗,摄食龙须菜生长的贝壳则较鲜亮。海带喂养组贝壳粉中色素种类最丰富,其次为石莼喂养组,紫菜和龙须菜喂养组贝壳中含有的色素种类显著少于海带和石莼喂养组。从色素相对含量来看,海带喂养组岩藻黄素的峰最为突出,叶黄素和叶绿素a的峰则相对较弱;而石莼、紫菜、龙须菜喂养组,则叶黄素的峰最为显著。初步表明:藻类所含色素种类与含量和皱纹盘鲍摄食该藻类后贝壳中的色素种类和含量存在一定相关性。
3      饵料对幼鲍消化腺中多糖裂解酶的影响
A.    饵料对幼鲍消化腺中多糖裂解酶基因表达的影响
       不同处理组的幼鲍多糖裂解酶表达丰度有显著差异,海带组消化腺中褐藻酸酶相对表达量极显著地高于其他三组;紫菜和龙须菜组α-淀粉酶相对表达量极显著地高于其他组,紫菜组的α-淀粉酶相对表达量约为海带组的7倍。
B. 饵料对幼鲍消化腺中多糖裂解酶的影响
       海带处理组的褐藻酸酶活性最高,约为龙须菜组的7.26倍左右,石莼处理组其次,龙须菜处理组最低;海带处理组的纤维素酶活性最高,约为龙须菜组的4.75倍左右,石莼处理组其次,龙须菜处理组最低;石莼和龙须菜投喂组的α-淀粉酶活性最高,海带处理组其次,紫菜处理组最低。
C.    多糖裂解酶在食物调换前后存在差异
       富含褐藻胶的海带可快速诱导褐藻酸酶基因的表达,而龙须菜则诱导α-淀粉酶基因的表达。初步表明:皱纹盘鲍幼鲍褐藻酸酶、α-淀粉酶、纤维素酶等三种多糖裂解酶均为诱导酶,其基因表达受底物调控,食物的更换可快速诱导相应多糖裂解酶的基因表达上调或下调。
; The research took the 6th generation juvenile abalones of the Haliotis discus hannai Ino 97 breeding population as the object of study, feeding them with Saccharina japonica, Ulva lactuca, Porphyra haitanensis and Gracilaria lemaneiformis respectively, aiming to understand the effects of four kinds of algaes on the growth, shell color, pigment and polysaceharide lyase of different groups. The main results are showed as follow:
1 Effect of four kinds of algaes on the growth and the survival rate of juvenile abalones
Among four groups, the average shell length, shell width and wet weight of juvenile abalones were greatly influenced by the algaes. Ulva lactuca treatment group had the highest growth rate of shell length, shell width, wet weight and specific growth rate. however, the growth indexes of Gracilaria lemaneiformis were the lowest. The growth parameters of Saccharina japonica feeding group were in the middle. There were significant differences on growth characters among four different groups.
In addition, the daily growth rate of shell length, shell width and wet weight of Ulva lactuca treatment group were higher than those of the other 3 kinds of treatment groups. However, these indicators of Gracilaria lemaneiformis group were less than other groups.
The survival numbers of juvenile abalones which were fed with Ulva lactuca, Saccharina japonica, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Porphyra haitanensis were 150、147、146 and 138. The average survival rate of the four treatment groups was 100%、98.00%、97.33% and 92.00%, which indicated that the experimental system and the juvenile abalones were both in good condition.
2 Effect of four kinds of algaes on the shell colour and pigments of juvenile   abalones
The observations on shell color showed that the shell edges of the Haliotis discus hannai Ino which feed with Saccharina japonica and Ulva lactuca were green, while that in Porphyra haitanensis and Gracilaria lemaneiformis were reddish-brown. Compared with other pigments, the shells of Saccharina japonica group were rich in fucoxanthin, while the content of chlorophyll in Ulva lactuca group was significantly higher than that of other pigments. The phaeophyta was high in fucoxanthin and chlorophyta was rich in chlorophyll a, which meant that there was some correlation between the pigment in the algaes and in the shell.
3 Effect of four kinds of algaes on the polysaceharide lyase of juvenile abalones
A.Effect of four kinds of algaes on the gene expression of polysaceharide lyase of juvenile abalones
The gene expression of polysaceharide lyases such as alginase, cellulase as well as α-amylase is studied with Q-PCR on transcriptional level, the results of which suggest that there are significant differences in the gene expression abundance of the 3 kinds of polysaceharide lyases in the digestive glands of the juvenile abalones which are fed with different algaes. The relative expression quantity of alginase in the digestive glands of Saccharina japonica group is notably higher than the other three groups, while that of α-amylase in Porphyra haitanensis and Gracilaria lemaneiformis group is markedly higher than other groups, and that of α-amylase in Porphyra haitanensis group is approximately 7 times of that in Saccharina japonica group.
B. Effect of four kinds of algaes on the polysaceharide lyase activity of juvenile abalones
The alginase activity of juvenile abalones which were fed with Saccharina japonica
was the highest, which was about 7.26 times of that in Gracilaria lemaneiformis group,
and the alginase activity of Gracilaria lemaneiformis feeding group was the lowest;
the α-amylase activity of juvenile abalones which were fed with Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria lemaneiformis was the highest, which was the lowest in Porphyra haitanensis feeding group; the cellulase activity of juvenile abalones which were fed with Saccharina japonica was the highest, which was about 4.75 times of that in Gracilaria lemaneiformis group, and the cellulase activity of Gracilaria lemaneiformis feeding group was the lowest.
C.Effect of food exchange on polysaceharide lyase
Alginase, cellulase and α-amylase are inducible enzymes, the gene expression of which are regulated by substrates. The changing of food can quickly induce the up-regulation or down-regulation in the expression of polysaceharide lyase genes. The molecular regulation mechanism of the digestion and utilization of carbohydrate nutrients remains to be further investigated. 
学科领域水产学 ; 水产养殖学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/112560
专题实验海洋生物学重点实验室
作者单位中国科学院海洋研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王思佳. 不同海藻对皱纹盘鲍幼鲍生长、 贝壳色素和四种多糖裂解酶的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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