IOCAS-IR  > 海洋地质与环境重点实验室
浅海筏式海带养殖活动对水动力及沉积环境影响研究
Alternative TitleEffects of suspended kelp Laminaria japonica cultivation on hydrodynamic conditions and sedimentary environments
张泽华
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor黄海军
2016-05-19
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline海洋地质
Keyword海带养殖 水动力 泥沙输运 沉积环境 数值模拟 黑泥湾
Other Abstract        本论文综合利用黑泥湾海带养殖区附近海域的海流、悬浮体、表层沉积物、柱状样、水深地形等实测数据资料,计算了不同季节养殖区内外的潮流边界层参数、沉积物再悬浮沉降以及输运通量,结合潮流波浪泥沙数值模拟、沉积物粒径趋势分析、水深地形对比等方法,对比了海带养殖季节与无养殖季节养殖区内外的潮流动力、沉积物分布与输运的时空变化规律,以及养殖活动开展前后的海底地形冲淤变化特征,进而分析了海带养殖活动对研究区海域水动力和沉积环境的影响。
        研究区海带养殖覆盖的水体,由于养殖阻力作用使得潮流流速明显减弱,并使潮流流速的垂向剖面特征发生改变。受养殖活动的影响,潮流流速垂向剖面可以形成三种比较典型的异常模式,分别为标准的双阻流速剖面,上层稳定、中下层形成双阻流速形态的流速剖面,以及上下层两个双阻流速形态的流速剖面。这三种不同的流速剖面形态会因潮流流速和流向的变化而相互转化。
        海带养殖活动的存在使得底部边界层切应力减弱,从而造成再悬浮作用减弱;相比于自然水域,养殖区内部近底层以及垂向平均悬浮体浓度均显著降低。海带养殖区内部由于速度剪切显著减弱,海带藻体与潮流相互作用在其后部产生湍流等原因,使得受养殖活动影响的区域水体存在很强的垂向混合作用。
        研究区在自然状态下总体上处于冲刷状态,冲刷区域位于基岩岬角外侧,该区域海底沉积物类型主要为砂砾等粗颗粒沉积物,而海湾内近岸浅水区域存在一定的淤积作用。海带养殖活动开展以后,研究区海域沉积格局发生改变,海带养殖区内部形成范围较大的淤积环境,而养殖区内侧近岸浅水区淤积减弱,近岸沉积物出现粗化的现象,南北两侧基岩岬角以及黑石礁西侧冲刷作用减弱,养殖区东侧海域形成一定范围的细颗粒沉积区。
        另外,由于海带的生长具有季节性变化,短期的季节性交替变化使得养殖区附近海域水动力条件处在循环变化的过程中,致使海底无法出现持续稳定的冲淤环境,而是出现交替的侵蚀和淤积变化过程,这种剧烈变化对区域海底沉积格局会带来更大的影响。;     Based on various measurements and observations, including hydrology, suspended sediments, surface sediments, shallow sediment cores and water depth at the typical suspended kelp Laminaria japonica cultivation area of Heini Bay, this thesis calculates the boundary layer parameters, the fluxes of erosion/deposition, as well as the rate of sediment transport in different seasons within and around the cultivation area. In addition, numerical simulation, grain size trend analysis and topography comparison are applied to distinguish the feature of flow structure, sediment distribution and transportation in and around the cultivation area among different seasons. Ultimately, this thesis discusses the influence of suspended kelp cultivation on local hydrodynamic conditions and sedimentary environments.
    The results revealed that due to the widespread distribution of suspended culture community in the study area, the current velocity in culture area has been reduced and the vertical distributions of flow velocity have been changed. Three current velocity profiles were identified within and to the landward side of the culture area. Each profile can transform into another as the flow velocity and direction changes.
    The emergence of suspended kelp may have attenuated the shear stress of the bottom boundary layer, and thereby can restrain the resuspension of sediments. The concentration of the suspended sediments within the cultivation area is much lower than that within the natural waters. However, due to weakened shear stress of flow velocity and turbulence caused by interaction between kelp beam and current, the vertical mixing process of water in the cultivation area is strengthened.
    Under normal condition, the study area is generally in a state of being eroded. The eroded area mostly appears in the regions occupied by the bedrock headland, where the primary sediments are comprised of coarse particle matters such as sand and gravel. Meanwhile, in nearshore area with shallow water of the Heini Bay, depositing process takes place more often. After kelp culture activities arose, the sedimentary patterns in the study area are changed; the cultivation area is subject to dramatic deposition environment, while depositing appearing in the shallow waters is impaired along with the coarsening of the sediments. Erosion around the bedrock headland is attenuated as well. At the west side of the culture area, deposition area with a range of fine particle emerges.
    In addition, due to the seasonal change of kelp growth, the hydrodynamic conditions over the culture area change in a cycle manner, and hence the steady sedimentary environments are uneasy to take shape. Eventually, erosion and deposition process take place alternately in the culture area, which may lead the dramatic changes of sedimentary patterns in the study area.
Subject Area海洋地质学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/112504
Collection海洋地质与环境重点实验室
Affiliation1.中国科学院海洋研究所
2.中国科学院大学
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张泽华. 浅海筏式海带养殖活动对水动力及沉积环境影响研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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